New religious movement

new religious movementsnew religionsmodern religious movementsmovementnew religionNRMNeoreligionnew religiousNeoreligionsnon-traditional religions
A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or alternative spirituality, is a religious or spiritual group that has modern origins and is peripheral to its society's dominant religious culture.wikipedia
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Anti-cult movement

anti-cultanti-cult groupsanti-cult organization
In Western nations, a secular anti-cult movement and a Christian countercult movement emerged during the 1970s and 1980s to oppose emergent groups.
The anti-cult movement (abbreviated ACM; sometimes called the countercult movement) is a social group which opposes any new religious movement (NRM) that they characterize as a cult.

Religious denomination

denominationdenominationaldenominations
NRMs can be novel in origin or part of a wider religion, in which case they are distinct from pre-existing denominations.
As Christianity ages, groups that once were simply heterodox and considered 'New Religious Movements' have matured and developed identities (and often completely new religious texts) of their own, separate and apart from mainstream Christianity of 'only' the Old and New Testaments and trinitarianism, challenging the definition of Christian.

Mary Baker Eddy

Mary Baker Eddy Historic HouseMary Baker Eddy Historic HomeMary Baker Eddy House
The latter was represented by its founder Mary Baker Eddy.
Mary Baker Eddy (July 16, 1821 – December 3, 1910) was an American religious leader who founded Christian Science, a new religious movement, in New England in the latter half of the 19th century.

Religion

religiousreligionsreligious beliefs
A new religious movement (NRM), also known as a new religion or alternative spirituality, is a religious or spiritual group that has modern origins and is peripheral to its society's dominant religious culture.
For example, the Bahá'í Faith is a new religious movement that has links to the major Abrahamic religions as well as other religions (e.g. of Eastern philosophy).

Heathenry (new religious movement)

Germanic neopaganismHeathenryOdinism
The early 20th Century also saw a rise in interest in Asatru.
Scholars of religious studies classify it as a new religious movement.

Wicca

WiccanWiccansEclectic Wicca
In the 1940s, Gerald Gardner began to outline the modern pagan religion of Wicca.
Scholars of religion categorise it as both a new religious movement and as part of the occultist stream of Western esotericism.

Unification movement

Unification ChurchUniversal Peace FederationAmerican Freedom Coalition
In 1954 Scientology was founded in the United States and the Unification Church in South Korea.
The Unification movement, also known as the Unification Church (UC), is a worldwide new religious movement whose members are sometimes colloquially called "Moonies".

Aetherius Society

George KingThe Next MasterMary King (The Magdala Centre/The Aetherius Society)
In 1955 the Aetherius Society was founded in England.
The Aetherius Society is a new religious movement founded by George King in the mid-1950s as the result of what King claimed were contacts with extraterrestrial intelligences, whom he referred to as "Cosmic Masters".

Shinto

ShintoismShintōShintoist
Japanese new religions became very popular after the Shinto Directive (1945) forced a separation of the Japanese government and Shinto, which had been the state religion, bringing about greater freedom of religion.
Aspects of Shinto have also been incorporated into various Japanese new religious movements.

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi

MaharishiMaharshi Mahesh YogiMaharishi Yogi
In 1967, The Beatles' visit to Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in India brought public attention to the Transcendental Meditation movement.
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (born Mahesh Prasad Varma, 12 January 1918 – 5 February 2008) was an Indian guru, known for developing the Transcendental Meditation technique and for being the leader and guru of a worldwide organization that has been characterized in multiple ways including as a new religious movement and as non-religious.

Transcendental Meditation movement

Maharishi European Research UniversityTM movementTranscendental Meditation
In 1967, The Beatles' visit to Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in India brought public attention to the Transcendental Meditation movement.
The TM movement has been characterized in a variety of ways and has been called a spiritual movement, a new religious movement, a millenarian movement, a world affirming movement, a new social movement, a guru-centered movement, a personal growth movement, a religion, and a cult.

Cybersectarianism

cybercultcybersectInternet cult
That is sometimes referred to as cybersectarianism.
Cybersectarianism is the phenomenon of new religious movements and other groups using the Internet for text distribution, recruitment, and information sharing.

Parliament of the World's Religions

World Parliament of ReligionsParliament of World ReligionsWorld's Parliament of Religions
In 1893, the first Parliament of the World's Religions was held in Chicago.

J. Gordon Melton

Melton, J. GordonGordon MeltonJ. Gordon Elton
In 2006 J. Gordon Melton, executive director of the Institute for the Study of American Religions at the University of California, Santa Barbara, told The New York Times that 40 to 45 new religious movements emerge each year in the United States.
Melton is the author of more than forty-five books, including several encyclopedias, handbooks, and scholarly textbooks on American religious history, Methodism, world religions, and new religious movements (NRMs).

Peoples Temple

People's Templecult killing their members by influencing them to drink poisonous Kool-AidCult of Death
Beginning in 1978 with the deaths of 913 members of the Peoples Temple in Jonestown, Guyana by both murder and suicide an image of "killer cults" came to public attention.
The Peoples Temple of the Disciples of Christ, commonly shortened to Peoples Temple, was an American new religious movement founded in 1955 by Jim Jones in Indianapolis, Indiana.

Rastafari

Rastafari movementRastafarianRastafarians
The 1930s saw the rise of the Nation of Islam and the Jehovah's Witnesses in the United States; the Rastafari movement in Jamaica; Cao Đài and Hòa Hảo in Vietnam; Soka Gakkai in Japan; and Yiguandao in China.
It is classified as both a new religious movement and a social movement by scholars of religion.

Bryan R. Wilson

Bryan WilsonB. R. WilsonBrian R. Wilson
Bryan Wilson wrote, "Chief among the miss-directed assertions has been the tendency to speak of new religious movements as if they differed very little, if at all, one from another. The tendency has been to lump them altogether and indiscriminately to attribute to all of them characteristics which are, in fact, valid for only one or two."
Wilson was the author of several influential books on new religious movements, including Sects and Society: A Sociological Study of the Elim Tabernacle, Christian Science, and Christadelphians (1961), Magic and the Millennium (1973), and The Social Dimensions of Sectarianism (1990).

Brainwashing

mind controlbrainwashedbrainwash
Dick Anthony, a forensic psychologist noted for his writings on the brainwashing controversy, has defended NRMs, and in 1988 argued that involvement in such movements may often be beneficial: "There's a large research literature published in mainstream journals on the mental health effects of new religions. For the most part the effects seem to be positive in any way that's measurable."
It was later applied by Margaret Singer, Philip Zimbardo, and some others in the anti-cult movement to explain conversions to some new religious movements and other groups.

Dick Anthony

Dick Anthony, a forensic psychologist noted for his writings on the brainwashing controversy, has defended NRMs, and in 1988 argued that involvement in such movements may often be beneficial: "There's a large research literature published in mainstream journals on the mental health effects of new religions. For the most part the effects seem to be positive in any way that's measurable."
Dick Anthony is a forensic psychologist noted for his writings on the validity of brainwashing as a determiner of behavior, a prolific researcher of the social and psychological aspects of involvement in new religious movements.

Guru

gurusGurujiMaster
A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, the founder of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, appointed 11 “Western Gurus” to act as initiating gurus and to continue to direct the organisation.
In the Western world, the term is sometimes used in a derogatory way to refer to individuals who have allegedly exploited their followers' naiveté, particularly in certain tantra schools, self-help, hippie and new religious movements.

New Thought

New Thought Movementmind-cureHigher Thought
In 1891, the Unity Church, the first New Thought denomination, was founded in the United States.

Japanese new religions

Japanese new religionShinshūkyōnew religious movement
The term "new religions" is a calque of shinshūkyō, a Japanese term developed to describe the proliferation of Japanese new religions in the years following the Second World War.
Japanese new religions are new religious movements established in Japan.

Eileen Barker

Baker, EileenBarker, EileenE. V. Barker
Consequently, scholars such as Eileen Barker, James T. Richardson, Timothy Miller and Catherine Wessinger argued that the term "cult" had become too laden with negative connotations, and "advocated dropping its use in academia."
She is the chairperson and founder of the Information Network Focus on Religious Movements (INFORM) and has written studies about groups she defines as cults and new religious movements (NRMs).

Soka Gakkai

Sōka GakkaiSingapore Soka AssociationSoka Kyoiku Gakkai
The 1930s saw the rise of the Nation of Islam and the Jehovah's Witnesses in the United States; the Rastafari movement in Jamaica; Cao Đài and Hòa Hảo in Vietnam; Soka Gakkai in Japan; and Yiguandao in China.

Cult

cultsreligious cultdestructive cult
Since at least the early 2000s, most sociologists of religion have used the term "new religious movement" to avoid the pejorative undertones of terms like "cult" and "sect".
From the 1940s the Christian countercult movement has opposed some sects and new religious movements, and it labelled them as cults for their "un-Christian" unorthodox beliefs.