Ngorongoro Conservation Area

Ngorongoro CraterNgorongoroNgorongoro National ParkCratercrater of the NgorongoroNCAANgorongoro Conservation Area AuthorityNgorongoro Highlands
The Ngorongoro Conservation Area is a protected area and a World Heritage Site located 180 km west of Arusha in the Crater Highlands area of Tanzania.wikipedia
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Arusha

Arusha, TanzaniaArusha UrbanCity of Arusha
The Ngorongoro Conservation Area is a protected area and a World Heritage Site located 180 km west of Arusha in the Crater Highlands area of Tanzania.
The city is close to the Serengeti National Park, the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Lake Manyara National Park, Olduvai Gorge, Tarangire National Park, Mount Kilimanjaro, and Arusha National Park on Mount Meru.

Arusha Region

ArushaArusha DistrictArusha province
The conservation area is administered by the Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority, an arm of the Tanzanian government, and its boundaries follow the boundary of the Ngorongoro Division of the Arusha Region.
The national parks and reserves in this region include Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Arusha National Park, the Loliondo Game Controlled Area, and part of Lake Manyara National Park.

Serengeti National Park

SerengetiSerengeti Game ReserveSerengeti N. P.
The 2009 Ngorogoro Wildlife Conservation Act placed new restrictions on human settlement and subsistence farming in the Crater, displacing Maasai pastoralists, most of whom had been relocated to Ngorongoro from their ancestral lands to the north when the British colonial government established Serengeti National Park in 1959.
To preserve wildlife, the British evicted the resident Maasai from the park in 1959 and moved them to the Ngorongoro Conservation Area.

Maasai people

MaasaiMasaiMaasai tribe
The 2009 Ngorogoro Wildlife Conservation Act placed new restrictions on human settlement and subsistence farming in the Crater, displacing Maasai pastoralists, most of whom had been relocated to Ngorongoro from their ancestral lands to the north when the British colonial government established Serengeti National Park in 1959.
The Austrian explorer Oscar Baumann travelled in Maasai lands between 1891 and 1893, and described the old Maasai settlement in the Ngorongoro Crater in the 1894 book Durch Massailand zur Nilquelle ("Through the lands of the Maasai to the source of the Nile"): "There were women wasted to skeletons from whose eyes the madness of starvation glared ... warriors scarcely able to crawl on all fours, and apathetic, languishing elders. Swarms of vultures followed them from high, awaiting their certain victims."

Caldera

volcanic calderacalderascaldera collapse
The area is named after Ngorongoro Crater, a large volcanic caldera within the area.

Tanzania

TanzanianUnited Republic of TanzaniaRepublic of Tanzania
The Ngorongoro Conservation Area is a protected area and a World Heritage Site located 180 km west of Arusha in the Crater Highlands area of Tanzania.
Tanzania has 16 national parks, plus a variety of game and forest reserves, including the Ngorongoro Conservation Area.

Serengeti

Serengeti PlainsGreat MigrationSerengeti ecosystem
The area is part of the Serengeti ecosystem and, to the northwest, adjoins the SNP and is contiguous with the southern Serengeti plains.
The Tanzanian government later in the 20th century re-settled the Maasai around the Ngorongoro Crater.

Lake Eyasi

Eyasi
The Lake Eyasi escarpment bounds the half-graben on the southwest.
Lake Eyasi (formerly Njarasasee, "Njarasa Lake", and Hohenlohesee, "Hohenlohe Lake") is a seasonal shallow endorheic salt lake on the floor of the Great Rift Valley at the base of the Serengeti Plateau, just south of the Serengeti National Park and immediately southwest of the Ngorongoro Crater in the Crater Highlands of Tanzania.

Crater Highlands

Ngorongoro Highlands
The Ngorongoro Conservation Area is a protected area and a World Heritage Site located 180 km west of Arusha in the Crater Highlands area of Tanzania.
There are variety of scenic walks and hikes requiring various fitness levels, as well as trips to the famous Ngorongoro Crater, as well as visits to local villages.

History of Tanzania

independencebecame independentBritish colonial government
The 2009 Ngorogoro Wildlife Conservation Act placed new restrictions on human settlement and subsistence farming in the Crater, displacing Maasai pastoralists, most of whom had been relocated to Ngorongoro from their ancestral lands to the north when the British colonial government established Serengeti National Park in 1959.
The scheme had 50000 acre on the Ardai plains just outside Arusha; 25000 acre on Mount Kilimanjaro; and 25000 acre towards Ngorongoro to the west.

Gregory Rift

Eastern Rift ValleyGregory Rift ValleyEastern Rift
The Pliocene Ngorongoro Volcanic complex consists of 8 extinct shield volcanoes within the Eyasi Half-graben, the eastern boundary marked by the Gregory Rift Western Escarpment.
The Tanzanian portion includes Mount Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa, and the huge caldera of Ngorongoro.

Wildebeest

gnuConnochaeteswildebeests
They also attempted to drive the wildebeest herds out of the crater.
In the Ngorongoro, most animals are sedentary and males maintain a network of territories throughout the year, though breeding is seasonal in nature.

Oscar Baumann

Oskar Baumann
No Europeans are known to have set foot in the Ngorongoro Crater until 1892, when it was visited by Oscar Baumann.
He was also the first European to visit Lake Eyasi, Lake Manyara, and Ngorongoro Crater.

Lion

lionsAfrican lionPanthera leo
There is a picnic site here open to tourists and a huge swamp fed by the spring, and the area is inhabited by hippopotamus, elephants, lions and many others.
Lions seize the kills of spotted hyenas; in the Ngorongoro crater it is common for lions to subsist largely on kills stolen from hyenas, causing the hyenas to increase their kill rate.

Seven Natural Wonders of Africa

The crater was voted by Seven Natural Wonders as one of the Seven Natural Wonders of Africa in Arusha, Tanzania in February 2013.

Southeast African cheetah

South African cheetahcheetahSouthern African cheetah
Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus raineyi), East African wild dog (Lycaon pictus lupinus), and African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus) are rarely seen.

List of Ngorongoro Crater plants

Below is an alphabetical list of plants occurring in the Ngorongoro Crater in Tanzania.

Tanzania National Parks Authority

Tanzania National ParksTANAPATanganyika National Parks
The organization does not have a mandate over the game reserves such as the Selous Game Reserve which is managed by the Tanzanian Wildlife Division and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area managed by the Ngorongoro Conservation Authority.

Common eland

elandelandsTaurotragus oryx
There also are many other ungulates: the blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) (7,000 estimated in 1994), Grant's zebra (Equus quagga boehmi) (4,000), the common eland (Taurotragus oryx), and Grant's (Nanger granti) and Thomson's gazelles (Eudorcas thomsonii) (3,000).
Eland can be found in many National Parks and reserves today, including Nairobi National Park and Tsavo East National Park, Tsavo West National Park, Masai Mara National Reserve, (Kenya); Serengeti National Park, Ruaha National Park and Tarangire National Park, Ngorongoro Crater, (Tanzania); Kagera National Park (Rwanda); Nyika National Park (Malawi); Luangwa Valley and Kafue National Park (Zambia); Hwange National Park, Matobo National Park, Tuli Safari Area and Chimanimani Eland Sanctuary (Zimbabwe); Kruger National Park, Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, Giant's Castle and Suikerbosrand NR (South Africa).

Black rhinoceros

black rhinoDicerosblack
Large mammals in the crater include the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli), the local population of which declined from about 108 in 1964-66 to between 11-14 in 1995, the African buffalo or Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius).
In the Serengeti home ranges are around 70 to 100 km2, while in the Ngorongoro it is between 2.6 to 58.0 km2.

African wild dog

painted hunting dogAfrican wild dogswild dog
The population of African wild dog may have declined recently.
A population crash in lions in the Ngorongoro Crater during the 1960s resulted in an increase in African wild dog sightings, only for their numbers to decline once the lions recovered.

Spotted hyena

CrocutahyenaCrocuta crocuta
Common in the area are hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus), spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), and jackals.
In the Ngorongoro Crater, it is common for lions to subsist largely on kills stolen from hyenas.

Blue wildebeest

wildebeestConnochaetes taurinusWhite-bearded wildebeest
There also are many other ungulates: the blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) (7,000 estimated in 1994), Grant's zebra (Equus quagga boehmi) (4,000), the common eland (Taurotragus oryx), and Grant's (Nanger granti) and Thomson's gazelles (Eudorcas thomsonii) (3,000).
The population density ranges from 0.15/km 2 in Hwange and Etosha National Parks to 35/km 2 in Ngorongoro Crater and Serengeti National Park, where they are most plentiful.

Grant's gazelle

GrantNanger grantiG. granti
There also are many other ungulates: the blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) (7,000 estimated in 1994), Grant's zebra (Equus quagga boehmi) (4,000), the common eland (Taurotragus oryx), and Grant's (Nanger granti) and Thomson's gazelles (Eudorcas thomsonii) (3,000).
The gazelle's status as an unthreatened species is dependent on protection of the national parks and reserves where it lives, including Serengeti National Park and Ngorongoro Conservation Area in Tanzania, and Lake Turkana National Parks in Kenya.