Nickel

NiNi 2+ Nickel (Ni)nickel-63 56 Nibiological role played by nickelLargest nickel producermineralNi(II)Ni-58
Nickel is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28.wikipedia
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Pentlandite

Cobaltpentlanditeparagenesis
Nickel's other important ore minerals include pentlandite and a mixture of Ni-rich natural silicates known as garnierite.
Pentlandite is an iron–nickel sulfide, (Fe,Ni) 9 S 8.

Iron

FeFe 2+ Fe(III)
Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron, a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis. Nickel is one of four elements (the others are iron, cobalt, and gadolinium) that are ferromagnetic at approximately room temperature.
The inner core of the Earth is generally presumed to consist of an iron-nickel alloy with ε (or β) structure.

Meteoric iron

meteoritic irone.g., nickel substitutionsiron
Use of nickel (as a natural meteoric nickel–iron alloy) has been traced as far back as 3500 BCE.
Meteoric iron, sometimes meteoritic iron, is a native metal and early-universe protoplanetary-disk remnant found in meteorites and made from the elements iron and nickel mainly in the form of the mineral phases kamacite and taenite.

Native metal

nativefree metalfree
Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks, and in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere.
Metals that can be found as native deposits singly or in alloys include aluminium, antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, indium, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, rhenium, selenium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, and zinc, as well as two groups of metals: the gold group, and the platinum group.

Garnierite

noumeite
Nickel's other important ore minerals include pentlandite and a mixture of Ni-rich natural silicates known as garnierite.
It forms by lateritic weathering of ultramafic rocks and occurs in many nickel laterite deposits in the world.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Nickel is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

Nickel silver

German silverNickel-brassnickel-silver
Historically, it has been used for plating iron and brass, coating chemistry equipment, and manufacturing certain alloys that retain a high silvery polish, such as German silver.
Nickel silver, Maillechort, German silver, Argentan, new silver, nickel brass, albata, alpacca, is a copper alloy with nickel and often zinc.

Supernova nucleosynthesis

supernovaduring supernovaeexplosive
Meteoric nickel is found in combination with iron, a reflection of the origin of those elements as major end products of supernova nucleosynthesis.
Together, shock-wave nucleosynthesis and hydrostatic-burning processes create most of the isotopes of the elements carbon (Z = 6), oxygen (Z = 8), and elements with Z = 10–28 (from neon to nickel).

Cobalt

CoCo 2+ bush sickness
Nickel is one of four elements (the others are iron, cobalt, and gadolinium) that are ferromagnetic at approximately room temperature.
The element is, however, more usually produced as a by-product of copper and nickel mining.

Raney nickel

Raney-Nickelcatalyst for hydrogenationspongy nickel
As a compound, nickel has a number of niche chemical manufacturing uses, such as a catalyst for hydrogenation, cathodes for batteries, pigments and metal surface treatments.
Raney nickel, also called spongy nickel, is a fine-grained solid composed mostly of nickel derived from a nickel–aluminium alloy.

Magnet

permanent magnetmagnetspermanent magnets
Alnico permanent magnets based partly on nickel are of intermediate strength between iron-based permanent magnets and rare-earth magnets.
These include the elements iron, nickel and cobalt and their alloys, some alloys of rare-earth metals, and some naturally occurring minerals such as lodestone.

Gadolinium

GdGd 3+ contrast
Nickel is one of four elements (the others are iron, cobalt, and gadolinium) that are ferromagnetic at approximately room temperature.
Gadolinium below its Curie point of 20 C is ferromagnetic, with an attraction to a magnetic field higher than that of nickel.

New Caledonia

New-CaledoniaNouvelle-CalédonieNCL
Major production sites include the Sudbury region in Canada (which is thought to be of meteoric origin), New Caledonia in the Pacific, and Norilsk in Russia.
In 1864 nickel was discovered on the banks of the Diahot River; with the establishment of the Société Le Nickel in 1876, mining began in earnest.

Norilsk

Noril'sk-TalnakhNorilsk ComplexNoril'sk
Major production sites include the Sudbury region in Canada (which is thought to be of meteoric origin), New Caledonia in the Pacific, and Norilsk in Russia.
The nickel deposits of Norilsk-Talnakh are the largest-known nickel-copper-palladium deposits in the world.

Ferromagnetism

ferromagneticferromagnetferromagnets
Nickel is one of four elements (the others are iron, cobalt, and gadolinium) that are ferromagnetic at approximately room temperature.
The common ones are iron, cobalt, nickel and most of their alloys, and some compounds of rare earth metals.

Alnico

Alnico 5Alnico IIAlnico V
Alnico permanent magnets based partly on nickel are of intermediate strength between iron-based permanent magnets and rare-earth magnets.
Alnico is a family of iron alloys which in addition to iron are composed primarily of aluminium (Al), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co), hence acronym al-ni-co.

Transition metal

transition metalstransition elementtransition-metal
Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile.
Vanadium(V) oxide (in the contact process), finely divided iron (in the Haber process), and nickel (in catalytic hydrogenation) are some of the examples.

Ultramafic rock

ultramaficultrabasicultramafic rocks
Even so, pure native nickel is found in Earth's crust only in tiny amounts, usually in ultramafic rocks, and in the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were not exposed to oxygen when outside Earth's atmosphere.
Komatiites can be host to ore deposits of nickel.

Meteorite

meteoritesmeteoriticmeteoric
Major production sites include the Sudbury region in Canada (which is thought to be of meteoric origin), New Caledonia in the Pacific, and Norilsk in Russia.
About 5% of meteorites that have been seen to fall are iron meteorites composed of iron-nickel alloys, such as kamacite and/or taenite.

Axel Fredrik Cronstedt

Axel F. CronstedtCronstedt, Axel FredrikF. Cronstedt
Nickel was first isolated and classified as a chemical element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who initially mistook the ore for a copper mineral, in the cobalt mines of Los, Hälsingland, Sweden.
Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (/kroonstet/ 23 December 1722 – 19 August 1765) was a Swedish mineralogist and chemist who discovered nickel in 1751 as a mining expert with the Bureau of Mines.

Copper

CuCu 2+ cupric
Nickel was first isolated and classified as a chemical element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who initially mistook the ore for a copper mineral, in the cobalt mines of Los, Hälsingland, Sweden.
The alloy of copper and nickel, called cupronickel, is used in low-denomination coins, often for the outer cladding.

Metal

metalsmetal ionsmetal ion
It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge.
The addition of silicon will produce cast irons, while the addition of chromium, nickel and molybdenum to carbon steels (more than 10%) results in stainless steels.

Alloy

alloysmetal alloyalloying
Historically, it has been used for plating iron and brass, coating chemistry equipment, and manufacturing certain alloys that retain a high silvery polish, such as German silver.
Meteorites are sometimes made of naturally occurring alloys of iron and nickel, but are not native to the Earth.

Nickel-62

62 Nimass) per nucleon
Nickel-62 has the highest mean nuclear binding energy per nucleon of any nuclide, at 8.7946 MeV/nucleon.
Nickel-62 is an isotope of nickel having 28 protons and 34 neutrons.

Curie temperature

Curie pointbelow −183 °CCurie
Its Curie temperature is 355 °C, meaning that bulk nickel is non-magnetic above this temperature.