Nicolae Ceaușescu

Nicolae CeauşescuCeauşescuCeaușescuNicolaeCeausescuNicolae CeausescuCeauşescu, NicolaeCeaușescu eraPresident Nicolae CeaușescuCeaucescu
Nicolae Ceaușescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian communist politician.wikipedia
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Romanian Revolution

1989 RevolutionRevolution1989 Romanian Revolution
He was also the country's head of state from 1967, serving as President of the State Council, from 1974 concurrently as President of the Republic, until his overthrow in the Romanian Revolution in December 1989, part of a series of anti-Communist and anti-Soviet Union uprisings in Eastern Europe that year. The demonstrations, which reached Bucharest, became known as the Romanian Revolution—the only violent overthrow of a communist government in the turn of the Revolutions of 1989.
The Romanian Revolution started in the city of Timișoara and soon spread throughout the country, ultimately culminating in the show trial and execution of longtime Communist Party General Secretary Nicolae Ceaușescu and his wife Elena, and the end of 42 years of Communist rule in Romania.

Elena Ceaușescu

Elenahis wifeElena Ceauşescu
Ceaușescu and his wife, Elena, fled the capital in a helicopter, but were captured by the armed forces after the armed forces changed sides.
Elena Ceaușescu (née Lenuța Petrescu; 7 January 1916 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian communist politician who was the wife of Nicolae Ceaușescu, General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party and dictator of the Socialist Republic of Romania.

Nicolae Ceaușescu's cult of personality

personality cultcult of personalitya vast personality cult
His cult of personality experienced unprecedented elevation, followed by extensive nepotism and the intense deterioration of foreign relations, even with the Soviet Union.
During the Cold War, Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu presided over the most pervasive cult of personality within the Eastern Bloc.

Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej

Gheorghiu-Dej
Ceaușescu rose up through the ranks of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej's Socialist government and, upon Gheorghiu-Dej's death in 1965, he succeeded to the leadership of Romania’s Communist Party as General Secretary.
His once protege Nicolae Ceaușescu succeeded him as General Secretary, only to create the office of President in 1974.

1980s austerity policy in Romania

austerityausterity measuresausterity measures of the 1980s in Romania
The shortages that followed drastically lowered living standards, leading to heavy rationing of food, water, oil, heat, electricity, medicine, and other necessities.
The 1980s austerity policy in Romania was imposed by Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu in order to pay out the external debt incurred by the state in the 1970s.

President of Romania

PresidentRomanian PresidentChairman of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly of Romania
He was also the country's head of state from 1967, serving as President of the State Council, from 1974 concurrently as President of the Republic, until his overthrow in the Romanian Revolution in December 1989, part of a series of anti-Communist and anti-Soviet Union uprisings in Eastern Europe that year.
The office of President was created in 1974, when Communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu elevated the presidency of the State Council to a full-fledged executive presidency.

Bucharest

BucureştiBucharest, RomaniaBucurești
Nicolae studied at the village school until at the age of 11, when he ran away from his extremely religious, abusive and strict father to Bucharest.
In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris" (Micul Paris). Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were heavily damaged or destroyed by war, earthquakes, and above all Nicolae Ceaușescu's program of systematization, many survived and have been renovated.

Ceaușescu family

his familyCeaușescu couple
Ceaușescu was born in the small village of Scornicești, Olt County, on 26 January 1918, being one of the nine children of a poor peasant family (see Ceaușescu family).
Nicolae Ceaușescu, who led Romania from 1965 to 1989, had a large family, several members of which wielded influence in Communist Romania.

Olt County

OltOT
Ceaușescu was born in the small village of Scornicești, Olt County, on 26 January 1918, being one of the nine children of a poor peasant family (see Ceaușescu family). Born in 1918 in Scornicești, Olt County, Ceaușescu was a member of the Romanian Communist youth movement.
The town of Scornicești - the birthplace of Nicolae Ceaușescu.

Ion Iliescu

Ion IlieskuPresident IliescuPresident Ion Iliescu
On 25 December, after being tried and convicted of economic sabotage and genocide, they were immediately executed by firing squad, and Ceaușescu was succeeded as President by Ion Iliescu, who had played a major part in the revolution.
However, beginning with 1971, he was gradually marginalized by Nicolae Ceaușescu.

Securitate

secret policeCouncil of State SecurityDepartment of State Security
His secret police, the Securitate, was responsible for mass surveillance as well as severe repression and human rights abuses within the country, and he suppressed and controlled the media and press, implementing methods that were among the harshest, most restrictive and brutal in the world. In 1978, Ion Mihai Pacepa, a senior member of the Romanian political police (Securitate, State Security), defected to the United States.
Following the overthrow of Nicolae Ceaușescu in 1989, the DSS lived on until 1991, when Parliament approved a law reorganizing the DSS into various subdivisions.

Trial of Nicolae and Elena Ceaușescu

executedshow trialtried and convicted
On 25 December, after being tried and convicted of economic sabotage and genocide, they were immediately executed by firing squad, and Ceaușescu was succeeded as President by Ion Iliescu, who had played a major part in the revolution.
The trial of Nicolae and Elena Ceaușescu was a short trial held on 25 December 1989 by an Exceptional Military Tribunal, a drumhead court-martial created at the request of the Council of the National Salvation Front, resulting in the death sentence and execution of former Romanian President and Romanian Communist Party General Secretary, Nicolae Ceaușescu, and his wife, Elena Ceaușescu.

Romania

🇷🇴ROURomanian
Nicolae Ceaușescu (26 January 1918 – 25 December 1989) was a Romanian communist politician.
In 1965, Nicolae Ceaușescu came to power and started to conduct the foreign policy more independently from the Soviet Union.

Scornicești

ConstantineștiNegreniŞuica
Ceaușescu was born in the small village of Scornicești, Olt County, on 26 January 1918, being one of the nine children of a poor peasant family (see Ceaușescu family). Born in 1918 in Scornicești, Olt County, Ceaușescu was a member of the Romanian Communist youth movement.
Scornicești was the birthplace of communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu, who lived there until the age of 11, when he left for Bucharest to become a shoemaker.

Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
The demonstrations, which reached Bucharest, became known as the Romanian Revolution—the only violent overthrow of a communist government in the turn of the Revolutions of 1989.
Believing Gorbachev's reform initiatives would be short-lived, hardline communist rulers like East Germany's Erich Honecker, Bulgaria's Todor Zhivkov, Czechoslovakia's Gustáv Husák and Romania's Nicolae Ceauşescu obstinately ignored the calls for change.

Conducător

dictatorRulerthe ruler
For the Conducător (the "Leader"), as Ceaușescu liked to call himself, "demography was destiny" and countries with rising populations were rising powers.
Conducător (, "Leader") was the title used officially by Romanian dictator Ion Antonescu during World War II, also occasionally used in official discourse to refer to Carol II and Nicolae Ceaușescu.

Romanian orphans

children's institutionscountry's orphanagesRomanian orphanage
In October 1966, Ceaușescu banned abortion and contraception and brought in one of the world's harshest anti-abortion laws, leading to a large spike in the number of Romanian infants abandoned to deplorable conditions in the country's orphanages.
Under Nicolae Ceauşescu, both abortion and contraception were forbidden.

Doftana prison

Doftana
He spent most of his sentence in Doftana Prison.
Built in 1895 in connection with the nearby mines, from 1921 it began to be used to detain political prisoners, among them Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, who was the Prime Minister of Romania (1952–1955), and the Chairman of the State Council of Romania (1961–1965), and Nicolae Ceaușescu, who was General Secretary of Romanian Communist Party (1965–1989), and the first President of Romania (1968–1989).

Union of Communist Youth

Communist YouthUnion of Working YouthWorkers' Youth
After World War II, when Romania was beginning to fall under Soviet influence, Ceaușescu served as secretary of the Union of Communist Youth (1944–1945).
Nicolae Ceauşescu was the First Secretary of the UTC from August 23, 1944 to June 1945.

Anti-communism

anti-communistanticommunistanti-communists
He was also the country's head of state from 1967, serving as President of the State Council, from 1974 concurrently as President of the Republic, until his overthrow in the Romanian Revolution in December 1989, part of a series of anti-Communist and anti-Soviet Union uprisings in Eastern Europe that year.
Herta Müller is a Romanian-born German novelist, poet and essayist noted for her works depicting the harsh conditions of life in Communist Romania under the repressive Nicolae Ceauşescu regime, the history of the Germans in the Banat (and more broadly, Transylvania) and the persecution of Romanian ethnic Germans by Stalinist Soviet occupying forces in Romania and the Soviet-imposed Communist regime of Romania.

Decree 770

decreţeidecreţei 770banned abortion and contraception
In October 1966, Ceaușescu banned abortion and contraception and brought in one of the world's harshest anti-abortion laws, leading to a large spike in the number of Romanian infants abandoned to deplorable conditions in the country's orphanages.
Decreței (from the Romanian language word decret, meaning "decree"; diminutive decrețel) are Romanians born in the late 1960s and 1970s, shortly after the communist regime of Nicolae Ceaușescu issued Decree 770, aimed at the creation of a new and large Romanian population by restricting abortion and contraception.

July Theses

grew around himmini-cultural revolutionperiod
This quasi-Maoist speech, which came to be known as the July Theses, contained seventeen proposals.
The July Theses (Tezele din iulie) is a name commonly given to a speech delivered by Romanian leader Nicolae Ceaușescu on July 6, 1971, before the Executive Committee of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR).

State Council of Romania

State CouncilCouncil of Statepresident
He was also the country's head of state from 1967, serving as President of the State Council, from 1974 concurrently as President of the Republic, until his overthrow in the Romanian Revolution in December 1989, part of a series of anti-Communist and anti-Soviet Union uprisings in Eastern Europe that year.
Whenever the leader of the Communist Party was also State Council president (e.g., Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej from 1961 to 1965, and Nicolae Ceaușescu from 1967 to 1974), he derived his real power from his party post–an arrangement analogus to the current power structure in China, where the country's paramount leader serves as President, but derives his real power from his post as party leader.

1977 Vrancea earthquake

1977 earthquake1977 Bucharest earthquakeVrancea earthquake
The 1977 earthquake which destroyed much of Bucharest also led to delays in the oil plan.
Communist ruler Nicolae Ceaușescu suspended his official visit to Nigeria and declared a state of emergency.

Ion Mihai Pacepa

Pacepa, Ion MihaiPacepa
In 1978, Ion Mihai Pacepa, a senior member of the Romanian political police (Securitate, State Security), defected to the United States.
At the time of his defection, General Pacepa simultaneously had the rank of advisor to President Nicolae Ceauşescu, acting chief of his foreign intelligence service and a state secretary of Romania's Ministry of Interior.