Nicomedes I of Bithynia

Nicomedes INicomedesKing NicomedesNikomedes IPrusia
Nicomedes I (lived c. 300 BC – c. 255 BC, ruled 278 BC – c. 255 BC), second king of Bithynia, was the eldest son of Zipoetes I, whom he succeeded on the throne in 278 BC.wikipedia
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Bithynia

ancient BithyniaKingdom of BithyniaBithynian
Nicomedes I (lived c. 300 BC – c. 255 BC, ruled 278 BC – c. 255 BC), second king of Bithynia, was the eldest son of Zipoetes I, whom he succeeded on the throne in 278 BC.
Its capital Nicomedia was rebuilt on the site of ancient Astacus in 264 BC by Nicomedes I of Bithynia.

Zipoetes II of Bithynia

Zipoetes IIZipoites II
He commenced his reign by putting to death two of his brothers but the third, subsequently called Zipoetes II, raised an insurrection against him and succeeded in maintaining himself, for some time, in the independent sovereignty of a considerable part of Bithynia.
He was a son of the great ruler Zipoetes I of Bithynia, and a younger brother of Nicomedes I of Bithynia.

Zipoetes I of Bithynia

Zipoetes IZipoitesZipoites I
Nicomedes I (lived c. 300 BC – c. 255 BC, ruled 278 BC – c. 255 BC), second king of Bithynia, was the eldest son of Zipoetes I, whom he succeeded on the throne in 278 BC.
He lived to around the age of seventy-six, and left behind him four children, the eldest of whom, Nicomedes, succeeded him.

Nicomedia

AstacusNicomedeiacity
In imitation of his father, and so many others of the Greek rulers of Asia, he determined to perpetuate his own name by the foundation of a new capital and the site that he chose, in the immediate neighbourhood of the Megarian colony of Astakos, was so judiciously selected that the city of Nicomedia continued for more than six centuries to be one of the richest and most flourishing in Anatolia.
After being destroyed by Lysimachus, it was rebuilt by Nicomedes I of Bithynia in 264 BC under the name of Nicomedia, and has ever since been one of the most important cities in northwestern Asia Minor.

Leonnorius

LeonnoriosLeonorius
It was more against his brother than his foreign enemies that Nicomedes now called in the assistance of more powerful auxiliaries and entered into an alliance with the Celts who, under Leonnorius and Lutarius, had arrived on the opposite side of the Bosphorus and were, at this time, engaged in the siege of Byzantium, 277 BC.
While Leonnorius was still before Byzantium, Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, being in want of support in his war with his brother Zipoetes II and the Seleucid king, Antiochus I Soter, agreed to take him and his troops, as well as those of Lutarius, into his pay, and furnished them with the means of passing over into Asia (278 BC).

Etazeta of Bithynia

Etazeta
He had been twice married; by his first wife, Ditizele, a Phrygian by birth he had two sons, Prusias and Ziaelas, and a daughter, Lysandra; but his second wife, Etazeta, persuaded him to set aside his children by his first marriage and leave his crown to her offspring.
255 BC – 254 BC) was the second wife of Nicomedes I, king of Bithynia and a ruler of Bithynia.

Ziaelas of Bithynia

Ziaelas
He had been twice married; by his first wife, Ditizele, a Phrygian by birth he had two sons, Prusias and Ziaelas, and a daughter, Lysandra; but his second wife, Etazeta, persuaded him to set aside his children by his first marriage and leave his crown to her offspring.
Ziaelas (lived c. 265 BC – 228 BC, reigned c. 254 BC – 228 BC), third king of Bithynia, was a son of Nicomedes I and Ditizele.

Galatia

ancient GalatiaGalatianAsia Minor
Having furnished them with the means of crossing into Asia, where they founded Galatia, he first turned the arms of his new auxiliaries against Zipoetes II, whom he defeated and put to death, and thus reunited the whole of Bithynia under his dominion.
For several years a federation of Hellespontine cities, including Byzantion and Chalkedon prevented the Celts from entering Asia Minor but this changed when Nikomedes I of Bithynia allied with some of the Celtic leaders in a war against his brother Zipoetes and the Seleucid king Antiochus I.

Astacus (Bithynia)

AstacusAstakosAstacus in Bithynia
In imitation of his father, and so many others of the Greek rulers of Asia, he determined to perpetuate his own name by the foundation of a new capital and the site that he chose, in the immediate neighbourhood of the Megarian colony of Astakos, was so judiciously selected that the city of Nicomedia continued for more than six centuries to be one of the richest and most flourishing in Anatolia.
Nicomedes I, son of Zipoetes, founded a new city to replace Astacus across from its former location, which he named Nicomedia after himself, bringing some of the Astacan cults to the new site.

Aphrodite of Knidos

Aphrodite of CnidusVenus PudicaCnidian Aphrodite
It is probably this Nicomedes who sought to purchase from the city of Knidos the celebrated statue of Venus, by Praxiteles, by offering to remit the whole public debt of the city.
Nicomedes I of Bithynia offered to pay off the enormous debts of the city of Knidos in exchange for the statue, but the Knidians rejected his offer.

Praxiteles

PraxiteleanPraxitelean modelPraxitelean tradition
It is probably this Nicomedes who sought to purchase from the city of Knidos the celebrated statue of Venus, by Praxiteles, by offering to remit the whole public debt of the city.
Also, the Aphrodite of Cnidus at the Vatican Museums is a copy of the statue made by Praxiteles for the people of Cnidus, and by them valued so highly that they refused to sell it to King Nicomedes in exchange for discharging the city's enormous debt (Pliny).

List of rulers of Bithynia

Kings of Bithyniacomplete listZipoetes
Nicomedes I (lived c. 300 BC – c. 255 BC, ruled 278 BC – c. 255 BC), second king of Bithynia, was the eldest son of Zipoetes I, whom he succeeded on the throne in 278 BC.

Antiochus I Soter

Antiochus IAntiochusAntiochos I
Meanwhile, Nicomedes was threatened with an invasion from Antiochus I Soter, king of the Seleucid Empire, who had already made war upon his father, Zipoetes I, and, to strengthen himself against this danger, he concluded an alliance with Heraclea Pontica and shortly afterwards with Antigonus II Gonatas.

Seleucid Empire

SeleucidSeleucidsSeleucid dynasty
Meanwhile, Nicomedes was threatened with an invasion from Antiochus I Soter, king of the Seleucid Empire, who had already made war upon his father, Zipoetes I, and, to strengthen himself against this danger, he concluded an alliance with Heraclea Pontica and shortly afterwards with Antigonus II Gonatas.

Heraclea Pontica

HeracleaHeracleansHeracleia
Meanwhile, Nicomedes was threatened with an invasion from Antiochus I Soter, king of the Seleucid Empire, who had already made war upon his father, Zipoetes I, and, to strengthen himself against this danger, he concluded an alliance with Heraclea Pontica and shortly afterwards with Antigonus II Gonatas.

Antigonus II Gonatas

Antigonus GonatasAntigonus IIAntigonus
Meanwhile, Nicomedes was threatened with an invasion from Antiochus I Soter, king of the Seleucid Empire, who had already made war upon his father, Zipoetes I, and, to strengthen himself against this danger, he concluded an alliance with Heraclea Pontica and shortly afterwards with Antigonus II Gonatas. The latter were still infants at the time of his death, on which account he confided their guardianship, by his will, to the two kings, Antigonus II Gonatas and Ptolemy II Philadelphus, together with the free cities of Heraclea Pontica, Byzantium and Cius.

Celts

CelticCeltCeltic people
It was more against his brother than his foreign enemies that Nicomedes now called in the assistance of more powerful auxiliaries and entered into an alliance with the Celts who, under Leonnorius and Lutarius, had arrived on the opposite side of the Bosphorus and were, at this time, engaged in the siege of Byzantium, 277 BC.

Bosporus

BosphorusBosphorus StraitBosphorous
It was more against his brother than his foreign enemies that Nicomedes now called in the assistance of more powerful auxiliaries and entered into an alliance with the Celts who, under Leonnorius and Lutarius, had arrived on the opposite side of the Bosphorus and were, at this time, engaged in the siege of Byzantium, 277 BC.

Byzantium

ByzantineByzantionByzantine Empire
It was more against his brother than his foreign enemies that Nicomedes now called in the assistance of more powerful auxiliaries and entered into an alliance with the Celts who, under Leonnorius and Lutarius, had arrived on the opposite side of the Bosphorus and were, at this time, engaged in the siege of Byzantium, 277 BC.

Anatolia

Asia MinorAsiatic TurkeyAnatolian Plateau
Having furnished them with the means of crossing into Asia, where they founded Galatia, he first turned the arms of his new auxiliaries against Zipoetes II, whom he defeated and put to death, and thus reunited the whole of Bithynia under his dominion.

Megara

MegarianMegariansMegarid
In imitation of his father, and so many others of the Greek rulers of Asia, he determined to perpetuate his own name by the foundation of a new capital and the site that he chose, in the immediate neighbourhood of the Megarian colony of Astakos, was so judiciously selected that the city of Nicomedia continued for more than six centuries to be one of the richest and most flourishing in Anatolia.

Colonies in antiquity

colonyGreek colonycolonies
In imitation of his father, and so many others of the Greek rulers of Asia, he determined to perpetuate his own name by the foundation of a new capital and the site that he chose, in the immediate neighbourhood of the Megarian colony of Astakos, was so judiciously selected that the city of Nicomedia continued for more than six centuries to be one of the richest and most flourishing in Anatolia.

Eusebius

Eusebius of CaesareaEusebianOnomasticon
The founding of Nicomedia is placed by Eusebius in 264 BC.

Phrygia

ancient PhrygiaPhrygia PacatianaPhrygia Salutaris
He had been twice married; by his first wife, Ditizele, a Phrygian by birth he had two sons, Prusias and Ziaelas, and a daughter, Lysandra; but his second wife, Etazeta, persuaded him to set aside his children by his first marriage and leave his crown to her offspring.

Ptolemy II Philadelphus

Ptolemy IIPtolemy PhiladelphusPtolemy II of Egypt
The latter were still infants at the time of his death, on which account he confided their guardianship, by his will, to the two kings, Antigonus II Gonatas and Ptolemy II Philadelphus, together with the free cities of Heraclea Pontica, Byzantium and Cius.