Ancient rock engraving showing herds of giraffe, ibex, and other animals in the southern Sahara near Tiguidit, Niger
Map of the Songhai Empire, overlaid over modern boundaries
The Grand Mosque of Agadez
Overlooking the town of Zinder and the Sultan's Palace from the French fort (1906). The arrival of the French spelled a sudden end for precolonial states like the Sultanate of Damagaram, which carried on only as ceremonial "chiefs" appointed by the colonial government.
President Hamani Diori and visiting German President Heinrich Lübke greet crowds on a state visit to Niamey, 1969. Diori's single party rule was characterised by good relations with the West and a preoccupation with foreign affairs.
Ali Saibou, President 1987–93, helped oversee the transition from military to civilian rule
A Tuareg rebel fighter in northern Niger during the Second Tuareg Rebellion, 2008
A map of Niger
Niger map of Köppen climate classification
An elephant in the W National Park
Niger's flag waving at the embassy in Paris
Administrative divisions of Niger
A proportional representation of Niger exports, 2019
Niamey, Niger's capital and economic hub
Niamey at night
Dolé Market
Fulani women with traditional facial tattoos
Small mosque in Filingue
A primary classroom in Niger
Maradi Reference Hospital
Horsemen at the traditional Ramadan festival at the Sultan's Palace in the Hausa city of Zinder
A traditional home in Zinder
Participants in the Guérewol perform the Guérewol dance, 1997.

Landlocked country in West Africa named after the Niger River.

- Niger

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Niamey in December 1930. The large house in the centre is the French governor's residence. Air photo taken by Swiss pilot and photographer Walter Mittelholzer.
Place du Liptako-Gourma
The Friendship Bridge
Niamey seen from Spot Satellite
Niamey marketplace
Niger National Museum
Old presidential palace
Niamey airport

Niamey is the capital and largest city of Niger.


Country in North Africa.

Roman ruins at Djémila
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
Battle of Somah in 1836
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Houari Boumediene
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
The People's National Assembly
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
GDP per capita development in Algeria
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Pipelines across Algeria
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
A Bulgur-based salad
The Algeria national football team

Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia; to the east by Libya; to the southeast by Niger; to the southwest by Mali, Mauritania, and Western Sahara; to the west by Morocco; and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea.


Landlocked country at the crossroads of North and Central Africa.

Group of Kanem-Bu warriors. The Kanem–Bornu Empire controlled almost all of what is today Chad.
A Chadian soldier fighting for Free France during World War II. The Free French Forces included 15,000 soldiers from Chad.
Despite internal political opposition, coup attempts, and a civil war, Idriss Déby continuously ruled Chad from 1990 until his death in 2021.
Chad is divided into three distinct zones, the Sudanian Savanna in the south, the Sahara Desert in the north, and the Sahelian belt in the center.
An African bush elephant
Toubou nomads in the Ennedi Mountains
Mboum girls dancing in Chad
Chadian woman voting during the 2016 presidential election
Embassy of Chad in Washington, D.C.
A proportional representation of Chad exports, 2019
GDP per capita development of Chad, since 1950
Women in Mao, where water is provided by a water tower. Access to clean water is often a problem in Chad.
A Chadian tailor sells traditional dresses.
Criquets grillés ou fris

It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon to the south-west, Nigeria to the southwest (at Lake Chad), and Niger to the west.

Total fertility rate

Obtained by summing the single-year age-specific rates at a given time.

Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau
Total fertility rate for selected countries
A plot of population growth rate vs total fertility rate (logarithmic). Symbol radius reflect population size in each country
Total Fertility Rate vs Human Development Index for Selected Countries
Total fertility rate projections by region
Map of East Asia by total fertility rate (TFR) in 2020
Map of U.S. states by total fertility rate (TFR) in 2013.
History of US Total Fertility Rate from 1933 to 2016.
Map of East Asia by total fertility rate (TFR) in 2021

As of 2021, the total fertility rate varied from 0.81 in South Korea to 7.0 in Niger.


Desert on the African continent.

The Sahara desert taken in space by Apollo 17 crew
A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the Saharan area
The main biomes in Africa
An oasis in the Ahaggar Mountains. Oases support some life forms in extremely arid deserts.
Sand dunes in the Algerian Sahara
Sunset in Sahara
Vegetation and water bodies in the Eemian (bottom) and Holocene (top)
Sahel region of Mali
The Great Green Wall, participating countries and Sahel. In September 2020, it was reported that the GGW had only covered 4% of the planned area.
The major topographic features of the Saharan region
Camels in the Guelta d'Archei, in north-eastern Chad
An Idehan Ubari oasis lake, with native grasses and date palms
Saharan rock art in the Fezzan
Oued Zouzfana and village of Taghit
Beni Isguen, a holy city surrounded by thick walls in the Algerian Sahara
Azalai salt caravan. The French reported that the 1906 caravan numbered 20,000 camels.
Market on the main square of Ghardaïa (1971)
Zawiya at the entrance of Taghit, Algeria
The Tuareg once controlled the central Sahara and its trade.
The French colonial empire (blue) was the dominant presence in the Sahara
A natural rock arch in south western Libya
The Sahara today
A 19th-century engraving of an Arab slave-trading caravan transporting black African slaves across the Sahara

The Sahara covers large parts of Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Western Sahara, Sudan and Tunisia.


Millets are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.

Pearl millet in the field
Finger millet in the field
Ripe head of proso millet
Sprouting millet plants
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum)
Kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum)
Tongba, a millet-based alcoholic brew found in the far eastern mountainous region of Nepal and Sikkim, India
, candied millet puffs, are a specialty of Osaka, Japan. This millet confection tradition began when it was presented to Sugawara no Michizane when he stopped in Naniwa during the early Heian period, about 1000 years ago.
Bánh đa kê, a specialty snack in Hanoi

Millets are important crops in the semiarid tropics of Asia and Africa (especially in India, Mali, Nigeria, and Niger), with 97% of millet production in developing countries.

Niger River

Main river of West Africa, extending about 4180 km.

Commercial activity along the river front at Boubon, in Niger
The great bend of the Niger River, seen from space, creates a green arc through the brown of the Sahel and Savanna. The green mass on the left is the Inner Niger Delta, and on the far left are tributaries of the Senegal River.
Mud houses on the center island at Lake Debo, a wide section of the Niger River
Map of the Niger, showing its watershed and "inland delta"
Growing African rice, Oryza glaberrima along the Niger River in Niger. The crop was first domesticated along the river.
A reconstruction of the Ravenna Cosmography placed on a Ptolemaic map. The River Ger is visible at bottom. Note it is placed, following Ptolemy, as just south of the land of the Garamantes, in modern Libya, constricting the continent to the land from the central Sahara north.
1561 map of West Africa by Girolamo Ruscelli, from Italian translation of Ptolemy's Atlas "La Geograpfia Di Claudio Tolomeo Alessandrino, Nouvamente Tradatta Di Greco in Italiano". The writer was attempting to square information gleaned from Portuguese trade along the coast with Ptolemy's world map. The mouths of the Senegal River and Gambia River are postulated to flow into a lake, which also feeds the "Ger"/"Niger River", which in turn feeds the "Nile Lake" and Nile River.

It runs in a crescent through Mali, Niger, on the border with Benin and then through Nigeria, discharging through a massive delta, known as the Niger Delta (or the Oil Rivers), into the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean.

Tuareg people

The traditional distribution of the Tuareg in the Sahara
Artist's representation of Tin Hinan, an ancient queen of the Hoggar
Tuareg chief Moussa Ag Amastan arriving in Paris, 1910
Tuareg in Mali, 1974
Tuareg separatist rebels in Mali, January 2012
Tuaregs in prayer, 1973
A Tuareg from Algeria
Tuareg man from Algeria
Tuareg men near Tahoua, Niger
A Tuareg blacksmith
Tuareg nomads in southern Algeria
Tuareg woman in traditional garb
The Cross of Agadez in 21 modern variations, Niger, 2019
Armed Tuareg men depicted in a French book of 1821. Both men carry spears and the telek dagger attached to the left forearm, the man on the right (a noble) is also armed with the takouba sword.
Tinariwen (Tuareg band) from Mali, taken at the Nice Jazz Festival in France
Tuareg singer Athmane Bali from Djanet, Algeria
Sebiba Tuareg festival in Djanet, Algeria. The celebrants brandish takouba swords.
Tuaregs at the January 2012 Festival au Désert in Timbuktu, just before the MNLA launched the Azawadi rebellion later in the same month
Tuareg selling crafts to tourists in the Hoggar (Algeria)

The Tuareg people (also spelled Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Imuhaɣ/Imušaɣ/Imašeɣăn/Imajeɣăn ) are a large Berber ethnic group that principally inhabit the Sahara in a vast area stretching from far southwestern Libya to southern Algeria, Niger, Mali, and Burkina Faso.

Least developed countries

The least developed countries (LDCs) are a list of developing countries that, according to the United Nations, exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world.

Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day
G33 countries: a coalition of developing countries in regards to agriculture.
Deputy Foreign Minister of Greece Spyros Kouvelis at the 4th UN Conference on Least Developed Countries

🇳🇪 Niger

Kanem–Bornu Empire

Bornu Empire extent c.1750
Bornu territory by 1500
Influence of Kanem Empire around 1200 AD
Borno in 1810
Influence of Kanem Empire around 1200 AD
Young woman from Bornu, mid-19th century
Kanembu warriors and their mounted chief in an illustration from Heinrich Barth's Travels and Discoveries, Vol. III, 1857

The Kanem–Bornu Empire existed in areas which are now part of Niger, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad and Nigeria.