A group of Yoruba people at a public event
Ceremonial Igbo pot from 9th-century Igbo-Ukwu
Degree of Presence of The Yoruba and derived' Ede 
groups in Nigeria, Benin & Togo at Subnational levels
Yoruba copper mask of Obalufon from the city of Ife c. 1300
Royal Benin ivory mask, one of Nigeria's most recognized artifacts. Benin Empire, 16th century.
Palace of the King of Oyo circa 1900s - Colorized
Frederick Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard who as Governor-General of Nigeria led the amalgamation of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and Southern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914.
Emir of Kano with cavalry, 1911
1953 postage stamp with portrait of Queen ElizabethII
Nnamdi Azikiwe, first president of Nigeria from 1963 to 1966
The Republic of Biafra in June 1967, when it declared its independence from the rest of Nigeria
Anna Hinderer church and mission house at Ibadan, 1850s
Shehu Shagari was the first democratically elected President of Nigeria from 1979 to 1983.
Olusegun Obasanjo was civilian President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007.
Yoruba door, wood carvings; used to record events c. 1910
Muhammadu Buhari is currently serving as President of Nigeria, since 2015.
Early 19th century Yoruba architecture showing their unique inner courtyard layout used as a safe space for storing livestock and a space where children could play
Nigerian National Assembly, Abuja
Nigerian Army self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
Nigerian Air Force Mil Mi-35P
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Abuja
Former Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan (centre) with United States President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama in August 2014
Gbedu drummers
Map of Nigeria with administrative divisions
Climate map of Nigeria
Palm plantation in Delta State
Rainforest range of Obudu Mountains
Wooden Ere Ibeji figures representing twins. Yorubas have the highest twinning rate in the world.
Clouds kissing the mountains of Obudu
A proportional representation of Nigeria exports, 2019
Farm ploughing in Kwara State
An older traditional Agbada clothing historically worn by Yoruba men. This exhibit was obtained in the town of Òkukù.
Oil facility at Bonny Island, Rivers State
PTDF – Petroleum Technology Development Fund
African Languages Spoken in American Households
Countries by natural gas proven reserves (2014). Nigeria has the largest reserves in Africa.
Commemoration of Black consciousness, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Innoson vehicles
Steel factory in Ajaokuta
Amala is a Yoruba food.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/A_Vocabulary_of_the_Yoruba_Language/oXxBAAAAYAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=amala|title=A Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language|author=Owen Emeric Vidal|publisher=Seeleys|date=1852|isbn=9781976589218}}</ref>
Meridien Akwa Ibom golf course park
Akara is a Yoruba bean fritter.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/A_Vocabulary_of_the_Yoruba_Language/oXxBAAAAYAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=akara|title=A Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language|author=Owen Emeric Vidal|publisher=Seeleys|date=1852|isbn=9781976589218}}</ref>
Lekki Beach in Lagos
Ofada rice is a Yoruba dish.<ref name="Olusegun Obasanjo 1983">{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Management_in_Agriculture_Rural_Developm/JdrSAAAAMAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=%22ofada%20rice%22|title=Management in Agriculture & Rural Development: A Practicioner's View|author=Olusegun Obasanjo|date=1983|isbn=9789782399243}}</ref>
Substation in Abuja
Ofada rice is traditionally in a leaf.
Railway system in Nigeria, 2022
Moin Moin is a Yoruba steamed bean pudding.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Adim%C3%BA/w3r4Xx2059AC?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=%22moin+moin%22|title=Adimú: Gbogbó Tén'unjé Lukumí|author=Miguel Willie Ramos|publisher=Eleda.Org Publications|date=July 2012|isbn=9781877845109}}</ref>
Second Niger bridge at Onitsha, artistic impression
A collection of foods eaten by Yorubas in general
SpaceX launch of CRS-11 with Nigeria EduSat-1 on board in 2017
Simple Iro and Buba with Gele<ref name="Esogwa C. Osuala 1988">{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Fundamentals_of_Nigerian_Marketing/JfbTAAAAMAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=%22iro+and+buba%22&dq=%22iro+and+buba%22&printsec=frontcover|title=Fundamentals of Nigerian Marketing|author=Esogwa C. Osuala|date=1988|publisher=Pacific Publishers|isbn=9789782347299}}</ref>
Population density (persons per square kilometer) in Nigeria
Agbádá àti Fìlà<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Yoruba_Dress/CzAqd4vGphoC?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=agbada+and+fila&dq=agbada+and+fila&printsec=frontcover|title=Yoruba Dress: A Systematic Case Study of Five Generations of a Lagos Family|author=Betty Marguerite Wass|date=1975|publisher=Michigan State University. Department of Family Ecology|isbn=9789782347299|pages=143–183}}</ref>
Map of Nigeria's linguistic groups
Iro and Bùbá, with Gele and Ipele. Blouse, wrapper and headgear<ref name="Esogwa C. Osuala 1988"/>
The Abuja National Mosque
Bùbá àti Kèmbè. Agbada top with short baggy pants<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/A_Handbook_of_Nigerian_Culture/n1AuAQAAIAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=kembe|title=A Handbook of Nigerian Culture|author1=Frank Aig-Imoukhuede|author2=Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Information and Culture|date=1992|publisher=Department of Culture, Federal Ministry of Information and Culture|isbn=9789783131613|page=134}}</ref>
National Church of Nigeria, Abuja
Iro and Bùbá, with Gele and Ipele made from Òfì<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Aso_Oke_Yoruba/bH5djwEACAAJ?hl=en|title=Aso Oke Yoruba: A Tapestry of Love & Color, a Journey of Personal Discovery|author=Tola Adenle|date=February 2, 2016|publisher=CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform|isbn=9781523495221}}</ref>
Nigerian states that implement some form of sharia law (in green)
Agbádá àti Sóró, Agbada and long slim pants<ref>{{cite book|url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Lekki/o9EuAQAAIAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=They%20wear%20dresses%20like|title=Lekki|author=Bola researcher/writer Sebastian|date=1992|publisher=Public Information Department, Lagos State Ministry of Information, Culture, Youth & Sports|page=3}}</ref>
A hospital in Abuja
Ìró and Bùbá with gele<ref name="Esogwa C. Osuala 1988"/>
The University of Lagos
A Nigerian police officer at the Eyo festival in Lagos
End SARS is a decentralised social movement and series of mass protests against police brutality in Nigeria.
Nigerian women in tech
Lisa Folawiyo, Fashion Designer From Nigeria
An Eyo Iga Olowe Salaye masquerade jumping
Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart, Africa's most popular and best selling literary piece ever, has been translated into more than forty languages.
Wizkid is a popular musician in Nigeria, Africa and worldwide.
Nigeria at the 2018 FIFA World Cup
Nigerian football supporters at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
Imota Rice Mill, close to Lagos
Oil and gas fields in the Niger delta
The world's biggest distilling column at the Dangote refinery in comparison
Pharmacy in Epe
Ituen Basi, Lagos based Nigerian fashion designer

The Yoruba people (Ìran Yorùbá, Ọmọ Odùduwà, Ọmọ Káàárọ̀-oòjíire) are a West African ethnic group that mainly inhabits parts of Nigeria, Benin and Togo that constitute Yorubaland.

- Yoruba people

The three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa in the north, Yoruba in the west, and Igbo in the east, together comprising over 60% of the total population.

- Nigeria

33 related topics


Mansa Musa depicted holding a gold nugget from a 1395 map of Africa and Europe

West Africa

Westernmost region of Africa.

Westernmost region of Africa.

Mansa Musa depicted holding a gold nugget from a 1395 map of Africa and Europe
13th-century Africa – Map of the main trade routes and states, kingdoms and empires.
West Africa circa 1875
French in West Africa circa 1913
A rhinoceros in Bandia Nature Reserve, Senegal. Credit: Corine REZEL.
African bush elephants in Yankari National Park, Nigeria
Deforestation in Nigeria.
Satellite imagery from outer space of West Africa
Railway systems in West Africa, 2022
Railway systems in West Africa 2030, projection
A street and airport in the famous town of Timbuktu, Mali, showing the Sudano-Sahelian architectural style of the West African interior
Philip Emeagwali wearing the Boubou (or Agbada), a traditional robe symbolic of West Africa
Jollof rice or Benachin, one of many Pan–West African dishes found only in West Africa
Supporters of ASEC Mimosas
The talking drum is an instrument unique to West Africa.
Kora-playing griots in Senegal, 1900. Both the Kora, a 21-stringed harp-lute, and the griot musical-caste are unique to West Africa.
The 13th-century Great Mosque of Djenné is a superb example of the indigenous Sahelian architectural style prevalent in the Savannah and Sahelian interior of West Africa. It is listed an UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Voodoo altar with several fetishes in Abomey, Benin
Map of petroleum and natural gas within West Africa
Praia, Cape Verde
Dakar, Senegal
Lomé, Togo
Porto-Novo, Benin
Niamey, Niger
Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Freetown, Sierra Leone
Banjul, Gambia
Conakry, Guinea
Bissau, Guinea-Bissau
Monrovia, Liberia
Bamako, Mali
Georgetown, Ascension Island
Tristan da Cunha, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 16 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo as well as Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

Further east, Oyo arose as the dominant Yoruba state and the Aro Confederacy as a dominant Igbo state in modern-day Nigeria.

Oyo Empire during the 17th–18th centuries

Oyo Empire

Oyo Empire during the 17th–18th centuries
Oyo Empire and surrounding states, c. 1625.
Oyo Empire and surrounding states c. 1700.
A Survey of Old Oyo Palace Compound
thumb|Solomon's knot, a quasi-heraldic symbol of Yoruba royalty
thumb|Quadruple Solomon's knot
thumb|The veve of Ogun, war god of the Yoruba and totem of both the emperors and kings that have followed Abiodun

The Oyo Empire was a powerful Yoruba empire of West Africa made up of parts of present-day eastern Benin and western Nigeria (including Southwest zone and the western half of Northcentral zone).


Country in West Africa.

Country in West Africa.

Map of the Kingdom of Dahomey, 1793.
The Portuguese Empire was the longest European presence in Benin, beginning in 1680 and ending in 1961, when the last forces left Ajudá.
Dahomey Amazons with the King at their head, going to war, 1793.
The French conquest of Dahomey in 1893
The flag of the People's Republic of Benin
Yayi Boni's 2006 presidential inauguration
Patrice Talon, current President of Benin
A Celestial Church of Christ baptism in Cotonou. Five percent of Benin's population belongs to this denomination, an African Initiated Church.
Benin map of Köppen climate classification.
Atakora, one of Benin's two northernmost departments.
The Pendjari National Park in Benin is one of the most important reserves for the West African lion and other large animals of West Africa.
A proportional representation of Benin exports, 2019
Extensive agriculture in the north of Benin, near Djougou.
Real GDP per capita development of Benin since 1950
Cotton field in northern Benin.
Beninese students.
Palais Des Congres in Cotonou.
Traditional music group.
Acarajé is peeled black-eyed peas formed into a ball and then deep-fried.

It is bordered by Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east, Burkina Faso to the north-west, and Niger to the north-east.

Before 1700, there were a few important city-states along the coast (primarily of the Aja ethnic group, but also including Yoruba and Gbe peoples) and a mass of tribal regions inland (composed of Bariba, Mahi, Gedevi, and Kabye peoples).


Aerial view of Lagos in 1929
Map of Lagos' initial city boundaries, showing its contemporary districts. This definition is rarely used in the present day; the expanded metropolitan area is now a more accepted definition of Lagos.
Lekki Conservation Centre canopy walk
Lagos Marina
Victoria Island
Civic Towers, Victoria Island, Lagos
A map showing the 16 LGAs making up Lagos Metropolitan Area
Lagos market scene
Apapa port
Entrance of the Lekki Free Trade Zone
Construction of the Dangote Raffinerie
Tree growing in Freedom Park
Tinubu Square
National Stadium.
The Lagos Black Heritage Festival Parade, 2012
Lekki Beach in Lagos
The Cathedral Church of Christ Marina on Lagos Island
Arewa Traditional Kitchen
Lagos Business School
Lagos Business School's Cafeteria
Dowen College in Lagos
University of Lagos
Toll gates and roads at the Lekki-Ẹpẹ Expressway
Lagos, its ports, airports, free trade zone and light rail system
Distilling column of the Dangote refinery in compare to a Saturn rocket
Pharmacy in Epe

Lagos (Nigerian English: ; Èkó) is the largest city in Nigeria and the second most populous city in Africa, with a population of 15.3 million as of 2022 within the city proper.

Lagos initially emerged as a home to the Awori subgroup of the Yoruba of West Africa and later emerged as a port city that originated on a collection of islands, which are contained in the present day Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Lagos Island, Eti-Osa, Amuwo-Odofin and Apapa.

Yoruba vowel diagram, adopted from Bamgboṣe (1969:166). Oral vowels are marked by black dots, while the colored regions indicate the ranges in possible quality of the nasal vowels.

Yoruba language

Yoruba (Yor.

Yoruba (Yor.

Yoruba vowel diagram, adopted from Bamgboṣe (1969:166). Oral vowels are marked by black dots, while the colored regions indicate the ranges in possible quality of the nasal vowels.

It is spoken by the ethnic Yoruba people.

As a pluricentric language, it is primarily spoken in a dialectal area spanning Nigeria and Benin with smaller migrated communities in Côte d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone and The Gambia.

Yoruba Copper mask for King Obalufon, Ife, Nigeria c. 1300 C.E.


Yoruba Copper mask for King Obalufon, Ife, Nigeria c. 1300 C.E.
Solomon's knot, a quasi-heraldic symbol of Yoruba royalty.
Terracotta head representing Ooni or King of Ife, 12th to 16th century
A sculpture of an Ife king or dignitary in the collection of the Ethnological Museum of Berlin

Ifẹ̀ (Ifẹ̀, also Ilé-Ifẹ̀) is an ancient Yoruba city in south-western Nigeria.


Government house gate
The church and mission in Ibadan, Yoruba country, 1850's
Iwo Road1, Ibadan, Oyo State
Front view of Mapo Hall, Ibadan
Cocoa House, Ibadan
Bower Memorial Tower
University of Ibadan
New railway station in Ibadan, artistic impression
Railway network of Nigeria 2021
Archbishop Ayo Lidigbolu House
Ayefele music house
Bower towers
Bower towers gate
bowers towers, Ibadan
Cocoa Dome, Dupe Ibadan
Crown Trust Plaza
Dugbe roundabout, Ibadan
Havsns Royale hall and event centre
Ibadan brow roofs
Kudi Avenue
Ring road
Mobolaji Johnson house
Kola Daisi University city building
Maharaji village
Molete baptist church
Ibadan ring road
Oba Adessoji Adereni house
Specialist hospital
High court of Justice
Presbyterian church
St. Annes Church
Sango Ojurin Market
Symentry, Bodija road
Ventura mall

Ibadan (, ; Ìbàdàn) is the capital and most populous city of Oyo State, in Nigeria.

The principal inhabitants of the city are the Yoruba people, as well as various communities (notably Igbo, Hausa, and Efik) from other parts of the country.

Stowage of a British slave ship, Brookes (1788)

Atlantic slave trade

The Atlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, or Euro-American slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of various enslaved African peoples, mainly to the Americas.

The Atlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, or Euro-American slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of various enslaved African peoples, mainly to the Americas.

Stowage of a British slave ship, Brookes (1788)
Reproduction of a handbill advertising a slave auction in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1769.
Map of Meridian Line set under the Treaty of Tordesillas
The Slave Trade by Auguste François Biard, 1840
Portrait of Ayuba Suleiman Diallo (Job ben Solomon), painted by William Hoare in the 18th century
Wedgwood anti-slavery medallion, produced in 1787 by Josiah Wedgwood
Slave traders in Gorée, Senegal, 18th century.
A slave being inspected
Major slave trading regions of Africa, 15th–19th centuries
Slave trade out of Africa, 1500–1900
Diagram of a slave ship from the Atlantic slave trade. From an Abstract of Evidence delivered before a select committee of the House of Commons in 1790 and 1791.
Diagram of a large slave ship. Thomas Clarkson: The cries of Africa to the inhabitants of Europe, c. 1822
A Liverpool Slave Ship by William Jackson. Merseyside Maritime Museum
Charles II of Spain. On November 7, 1693, Charles issued a Royal Decree, providing sanctuary in Spanish Florida for fugitive slaves from the British colony of South Carolina.
West Central Africa was the most common source region of Africa, and Portuguese America (Brazil) was the most common destination.
Slaves processing tobacco in 17th-century Virginia
Cowrie shells were used as money in the slave trade
Slaving guns (Birmingham History Galleries). In the second half of the 18th century, Europeans sold 300,000 rifles a year in Africa, maintaining the endemic state of war in which men, who were taken prisoner, were sold to supply the demand for slaves.
This map argues that import prohibitions and high duties on sugar were artificially inflating prices and inhibiting manufacturing in England. 1823
A Linen Market with enslaved Africans. West Indies, circa 1780
West Indian Creole woman, with her black servant, circa 1780
William Wilberforce (1759–1833), politician and philanthropist who was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade.
"Am I not a woman and a sister?" antislavery medallion from the late 18th century
Capture of slave ship El Almirante by the British Royal Navy in the 1800s. freed 466 slaves.
House slaves in Brazil c. 1820, by Jean-Baptiste Debret
Punishing slaves at Calabouco, in Rio de Janeiro, c. 1822
Recently bought slaves in Brazil on their way to the farms of the landowners who bought them c. 1830
A 19th-century lithograph showing a sugarcane plantation in Suriname

Bight of Benin (Togo, Benin and Nigeria west of the Niger Delta): 20.2%

8) The Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria

The extent of Benin in 1625

Kingdom of Benin

Kingdom in what is now in southwestern Nigeria.

Kingdom in what is now in southwestern Nigeria.

The extent of Benin in 1625
Depiction of Benin City by a Dutch illustrator in 1668. The wall-like structure in the centre probably represents the walls of Benin.
Benin in 1897
An unidentified West African flag allegedly brought to Britain by Lieutenant (later Admiral) F. W. Kennedy after the expedition.

The Walls of Benin are a series of earthworks made up of banks and ditches, called ya in the Edo language in the area around present-day Benin City, the capital of present-day Edo, Nigeria.

It also held sway over the Eastern Yoruba tribes of Ondo, Ekiti, Mahin/Ugbo, and Ijebu.

African Americans

Ethnic group consisting of Americans with partial or total ancestry from sub-Saharan Africa.

Ethnic group consisting of Americans with partial or total ancestry from sub-Saharan Africa.

Slaves processing tobacco in 17th-century Virginia, illustration from 1670
The first slave auction at New Amsterdam in 1655, illustration from 1895 by Howard Pyle
Reproduction of a handbill advertising a slave auction in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1769
Crispus Attucks, the first "martyr" of the American Revolution. He was of Native American and African-American descent.
Frederick Douglass, ca 1850
Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia, 1853. Note the new clothes. The domestic slave trade broke up many families, and individuals lost their connection to families and clans.
Harriet Tubman, around 1869
A group of White men pose for a 1919 photograph as they stand over the Black victim Will Brown who had been lynched and had his body mutilated and burned during the Omaha race riot of 1919 in Omaha, Nebraska. Postcards and photographs of lynchings were popular souvenirs in the U.S.
Rosa Parks being fingerprinted after being arrested for not giving up her seat on a bus to a White person
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, August 28, 1963, shows civil rights leaders and union leaders
Black Lives Matter protest in response to the fatal shooting of Philando Castile in July 2016
Proportion of African Americans in each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census
U.S. Census map indicating U.S. counties with fewer than 25 Black or African-American inhabitants
Graph showing the percentage of the African-American population living in the American South, 1790–2010. Note the major declines between 1910 and 1940 and 1940–1970, and the reverse trend post-1970. Nonetheless, the absolute majority of the African-American population has always lived in the American South.
Former slave reading, 1870
Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson is director of New York City's Hayden Planetarium
The US homeownership rate according to race
This graph shows the real median US household income by race: 1967 to 2011, in 2011 dollars.
"Lift Every Voice and Sing" being sung by the family of Barack Obama, Smokey Robinson and others in the White House in 2014
Genetic clustering of 128 African Americans, by Zakharaia et al. (2009). Each vertical bar represents an individual. The color scheme of the bar plot matches that in the PCA plot.
Al Sharpton led the Commitment March: Get Your Knee Off Our Necks protest on August 28, 2020.
Although the ban on interracial marriage ended in California in 1948, entertainer Sammy Davis Jr. faced a backlash for his involvement with a White woman in 1957
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. remains the most prominent political leader in the American civil rights movement and perhaps the most influential African-American political figure in general.
BET founder Robert L. Johnson with former U.S. President George W. Bush
A traditional soul food dinner consisting of fried chicken with macaroni and cheese, collard greens, breaded fried okra and cornbread
Mount Zion United Methodist Church is the oldest African-American congregation in Washington, D.C.
Masjid Malcolm Shabazz in Harlem, New York City
This parade float displayed the word "Afro-Americans" in 1911.
Michelle Obama was the First Lady of the United States; she and her husband, President Barack Obama, are the first African Americans to hold these positions.
Racially segregated Negro section of keypunch operators at the US Census Bureau

Correspondingly, Montinaro et al. (2014) observed that around 50% of the overall ancestry of African Americans traces back to the Niger-Congo-speaking Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria and southern Benin, reflecting the centrality of this West African region in the Atlantic Slave Trade.