Nigeria

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Ceremonial Igbo pot from 9th-century Igbo-Ukwu
Yoruba copper mask of Obalufon from the city of Ife c. 1300
Royal Benin ivory mask, one of Nigeria's most recognized artifacts. Benin Empire, 16th century.
Frederick Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard who as Governor-General of Nigeria led the amalgamation of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and Southern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914.
Emir of Kano with cavalry, 1911
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1953 postage stamp with portrait of Queen ElizabethII
Nnamdi Azikiwe, first president of Nigeria from 1963 to 1966
The Republic of Biafra in June 1967, when it declared its independence from the rest of Nigeria
Shehu Shagari was the first democratically elected President of Nigeria from 1979 to 1983.
Olusegun Obasanjo was civilian President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007.
Muhammadu Buhari is currently serving as President of Nigeria, since 2015.
Nigerian National Assembly, Abuja
Nigerian Army self-propelled anti-aircraft gun
Nigerian Air Force Mil Mi-35P
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Abuja
Former Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan (centre) with United States President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama in August 2014
Map of Nigeria with administrative divisions
Climate map of Nigeria
Palm plantation in Delta State
Rainforest range of Obudu Mountains
Clouds kissing the mountains of Obudu
A proportional representation of Nigeria exports, 2019
Farm ploughing in Kwara State
Oil facility at Bonny Island, Rivers State
PTDF – Petroleum Technology Development Fund
Countries by natural gas proven reserves (2014). Nigeria has the largest reserves in Africa.
Innoson vehicles
Steel factory in Ajaokuta
Meridien Akwa Ibom golf course park
Lekki Beach in Lagos
Substation in Abuja
Railway system in Nigeria, 2022
Second Niger bridge at Onitsha, artistic impression
SpaceX launch of CRS-11 with Nigeria EduSat-1 on board in 2017
Population density (persons per square kilometer) in Nigeria
Map of Nigeria's linguistic groups
The Abuja National Mosque
National Church of Nigeria, Abuja
Nigerian states that implement some form of sharia law (in green)
A hospital in Abuja
The University of Lagos
A Nigerian police officer at the Eyo festival in Lagos
End SARS is a decentralised social movement and series of mass protests against police brutality in Nigeria.
Nigerian women in tech
Lisa Folawiyo, Fashion Designer From Nigeria
An Eyo Iga Olowe Salaye masquerade jumping
Chinua Achebe's Things Fall Apart, Africa's most popular and best selling literary piece ever, has been translated into more than forty languages.
Wizkid is a popular musician in Nigeria, Africa and worldwide.
Nigeria at the 2018 FIFA World Cup
Nigerian football supporters at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
Imota Rice Mill, close to Lagos
Oil and gas fields in the Niger delta
The world's biggest distilling column at the Dangote refinery in comparison
Pharmacy in Epe
Ituen Basi, Lagos based Nigerian fashion designer

Country in West Africa.

- Nigeria

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The de facto independent Republic of Biafra in June 1967

Nigerian Civil War

The de facto independent Republic of Biafra in June 1967
The new republic adopted the Flag of Biafra which was unveiled on the 30th May 1967.
The proposed breakup of the East, West and Northern regions following Gowon's military decree.
Flag of the Republic of Benin
Lynn Garrison in cockpit of his F4U-7 Corsair 1966
Control over petroleum in the Niger Delta was a paramount military objective during the war.
A makeshift airport in Calabar, Nigeria, where relief efforts to aid famine victims were deployed by helicopter teams.
Malmö MFI-9 Biafra Baby two-view silhouette
A child suffering the effects of kwashiorkor, a disease brought on due to a severe dietary protein deficiency. Pictures of the famine caused by the Nigerian blockade garnered worldwide sympathy for the Biafrans. It was regarded in the Western press as the genocide of two million people, half of them children.
New Nigerian newspaper page 7 January 1970. End of the Nigerian civil war with Biafra. "Owerri is now captured. Ojukwu flees his enclave." Photographs of the military Obasanjo, Jallo, Bissalo, Gowon.
A severely malnourished woman during the war.
Disabled Biafran war veterans in 2017.

The Nigerian Civil War (6 July 1967 – 15 January 1970; also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War or the Biafran War) was a civil war fought between the government of Nigeria and the Republic of Biafra, a secessionist state which had declared its independence from Nigeria in 1967.

Atiku Abubakar

Nigerian politician and businessman who served as the vice president of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007 during the presidency of Olusegun Obasanjo.

Nigerian politician and businessman who served as the vice president of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007 during the presidency of Olusegun Obasanjo.

Atiku Abubakar in 1990s
Seal of the Vice-President.
Official Atiku Abubakar portrait for 2011 Nigeria election.
Abubakar with Muhammadu Buhari.

Following secondary school, Abubakar studied a short while at the Nigeria Police College in Kaduna.

Liberia

Country on the West African coast.

Country on the West African coast.

A European map of West Africa and the Grain Coast, 1736. It has the archaic mapping designation of Negroland.
Map of Liberia Colony in the 1830s, created by the ACS, and also showing Mississippi Colony and other state-sponsored colonies.
Residence of Joseph Jenkins Roberts, first President of Liberia, between 1848 and 1852.
African Americans depart for Liberia, 1896. The ACS sent its last emigrants to Liberia in 1904.
Charles D. B. King, 17th President of Liberia (1920–1930), with his entourage on the steps of the Peace Palace, The Hague (the Netherlands), 1927.
A technical in Monrovia during the Second Liberian Civil War.
A map of Liberia
Liberia map of Köppen climate classification.
A Liberian tropical forest
A view of a lake in Bomi County
Pygmy hippos are among the species illegally hunted for food in Liberia. The World Conservation Union estimates that there are fewer than 3,000 pygmy hippos remaining in the wild.
Loggers and logging truck, early 1960s
Former President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
President Sirleaf with US Secretary of State John Kerry, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos, and British PM David Cameron in September 2015
A proportional representation of Liberian exports. The shipping related categories reflect Liberia's status as an international flag of convenience – there are 3,500 vessels registered under Liberia's flag accounting for 11% of ships worldwide.
Liberia, trends in the Human Development Index 1970–2010.
Real GDP per capita development, since 1950
The streets of downtown Monrovia, March 2009
Liberia's population from 1961 to 2013, in millions. Liberia's population tripled in 40 years.
Liberia's population pyramid, 2005. 43.5% of Liberians were below the age of 15 in 2010.
Students studying by candlelight in Bong County
Development of life expectancy
Bassa culture. Helmet Mask for Sande Society (Ndoli Jowei), Liberia. 20th century. Brooklyn Museum.
A beachside barbecue at Sinkor, Monrovia, Liberia

Taylor resigned in August 2003 and went into exile in Nigeria.

Togo

Country in West Africa.

Country in West Africa.

Togoland (R. Hellgrewe, 1908)
Kwame Nkrumah, first President of Ghana
Sylvanus Olympio
The 2017–18 Togolese protests against the 50-year-rule of the Gnassingbé family
Current president of Togo Faure Gnassingbé since 2005
Gnassingbé Eyadéma ruled Togo from 1967 until his death in 2005.
A proportional representation of Togo exports, 2019
Togolese fishermen
Women in Sokodé
People of Togo in the 1980s
Church in Kpalime
Traditional Taberma houses
Footballer Emmanuel Adebayor

Some democratically elected African leaders such as Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal and Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria supported the move, thereby creating a rift within the African Union.

Economic Community of West African States

Regional political and economic union of fifteen countries located in West Africa.

Regional political and economic union of fifteen countries located in West Africa.

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The six member states of WAMZ are Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Nigeria and Sierra Leone who founded the organisation together in 2000 and Liberia who joined on 16 February 2010.

Biafra

The Republic of Biafra in red, bordered by its puppet state the Republic of Benin to the west
Map of Africa (Abraham Ortelius, 1584)
The Republic of Biafra in red, bordered by its puppet state the Republic of Benin to the west
Map of West Africa (Rigobert Bonne (Royal Cartographer of France) 1770)
The Republic of Biafra in red, bordered by its puppet state the Republic of Benin to the west
Map of West Africa (1839); Biafra is shown in the region of "Lower Guinea"
French map of the Gulf of Guinea from 1849
A satellite image of the former Republic of Biafra
Roundel of the Biafran Air Force.
New Nigerian newspaper page, 7 January 1970. End of the Nigerian civil war with Biafra. "Owerri is now captured. Ojukwu flees his enclave." Photographs of the military Obasanjo, Jallo, Bissalo, Gowon.
A child suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition during the Nigerian blockade

Biafra, officially the Republic of Biafra, was a partially recognised secessionist state in West Africa that declared independence from Nigeria and existed from 1967 until 1970.

Ethiopia

Landlocked country in the Horn of Africa.

Landlocked country in the Horn of Africa.

A Homo sapiens idaltu hominid skull
Kibish has the site of oldest fossil of human bones believed to be 195,000 years old along with Omo River. The skull remains are 40,000 older than in Herto, Ethiopia
The Obelisk of Axum dates from the 4th century
Aksumite currency of the Aksumite king called Endubis, 227–35, at the British Museum. The inscriptions in Ancient Greek read "ΑΧΩΜΙΤΩ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ" ("King of Axum") and "ΕΝΔΥΒΙΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ" ("King Endubis"), the Greek language was the lingua franca by that time so its use in coins simplified foreign trade.
The Kingdom of Aksum at its peak in the 6th century
Manuscript illustration by Rashi ad-Din's "World History", depicting the King of Axum rejecting Meccan delegation to yield Muslims in the kingdom
Church of Saint George is one of amongst 11 rock-hewn churches of Zagwe's King Lalibela achievement
Emperor Yekuno Amlak portrait allegedly from the 18th century
Emperor Dawit II (r. 1507–1540), a member of the Solomonic dynasty
The Sultan of Adal (right) and his troops battling Emperor Yagbea-Sion and his men.
Emperor Susenyos I was the first emperor converted to Roman Catholic in 1622, stressing the populace attitude of Orthodox Tewahedo Christianity
Emperor Tewodros II ((r. 1855 – 1868)) brought an end of Zemene Mesafint
The conquests of Emperor Yohannes IV, Negus Menelik and general Ras Alula in 1879–1889
Haile Selassie at his study in Jubilee Palace (1942)
Ethiopian cavalry during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War in 1936
Ras Seyoum Mengesha, Ras Getachew Abate and Ras Kebede Gubret with Benito Mussolini on 6 February 1937 in Rome, Italy, after the Italian occupation of Ethiopia
The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP) clashed with the Derg during the Red Terror
Ethiopian leader Mengistu Haile Mariam (left) with fellow Derg members Tafari Benti (middle) and Atnafu Abate (right). Mengistu was sentenced to death in Ethiopia for crimes committed during his government, which killed up to 500,000 people; he lived in exile in Zimbabwe as of 2018.
Former Prime Minister Meles Zenawi at the 2012 World Economic Forum annual meeting
Former Prime Minister of Ethiopia Hailemariam Desalegn meeting with former US Deputy Secretary of Defense Ash Carter in Addis Ababa.
Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo in 2019
House of People's Representatives is the lower house of the Ethiopian Federal Parliamentary Assembly
Former Foreign Minister of Ethiopia Tedros Adhanom with former U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry
Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed with Israeli President Reuven Rivlin in May 2018
The Ethiopian National Defense Force soldiers during ceremony in Baidoa, Somalia to mark the inclusion of Ethiopia into the African Union peace keeping mission in the country on 22 January 2014
The Ethiopian Federal Police Marching Band performing on annual festival in Meskel Square, Addis Ababa on 16 September 2017
Karo people in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region
Map of regions and zones of Ethiopia
Wonchi Lake at the crossroads between Ambo and Waliso in Oromia Region
Köppen climate classification of Ethiopia
Mountain nyalas in Bale Mountains National Park, one of several wildlife reserves in Ethiopia
Development of GDP per capita
A proportional representation of Ethiopia exports, 2019
Layout of the Grand Renaissance Dam
Tef field near Mojo
Ethiopia Export Treemap from MIT–Harvard Economic Complexity Observatory
Ethiopian Blessed Coffee branded bags in the United States. Coffee is one of main exports of Ethiopia.
Light rail in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
A Boeing 787-8 of Ethiopian Airlines
The subterranean rock-hewn Church of Saint George in Lalibela is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Orthodox priests dancing during the celebration of Timkat
A mosque in Bahir Dar
Street in Addis Ababa
Gondar skyline
Rural area in the Simien Mountains National Park
Street scene in Adigrat
Declining child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and Ethiopia since 1950
An Ethiopian girl about to receive her measles vaccine
Community health care workers
Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital
Entrance of Addis Ababa University
An Ethiopian woman roasting coffee bean in coffee house. Coffee serving ceremony is the most important course in Ethiopia.
Alwan Codex 27 – Ethiopian biblical manuscript
Illustration showing two Aksumite scribes
The Royal Enclosure at Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar
Giyorgis of Segla, prolific religious author in the Late Middle Ages
Tsegaye Gebre-Medhin in 1980s
Model commemorating the Obelisk of Aksum's return to Ethiopia from Italy, showing the date of its departure and return according to the Ethiopian calendar
Typical Ethiopian cuisine: injera (pancake-like bread) and several kinds of wat (stew)
Meskel commemorates the discovery of True Cross by Roman queen Helena in 326 AD
The Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation headquarter in Addis Ababa
Aksumite composer Yared credited with forebear of traditional music for both Ethiopia and Eritrea
Mahmoud Ahmed performing in 2005
Hager Fikir Theatre in April 2006
Kenenisa Bekele in 2012. Track and field athletics often prosper Ethiopia to participate in Olympics
Emperor Yekuno Amlak portrait allegedly from the 18th century
Emperor Fasilides (r. 1632–1667) was a major figure of Gondarine period
Emperor Iyoas I (r. 1755–1769) prematurely murdered at his reign by Ras Mikael Sehul in 1769
Semien Mountains landscape, 2009
Genzebe Dibaba middle- and long-distance runner. A 1500 metres 2016 Rio Olympics silver medalist, she won a gold medal in this event and a bronze in the 5000 metres at the 2015 World Championships.

It is home to 117 million inhabitants and is the 12th-most populous country in the world and the 2nd-most populous in Africa after Nigeria.

Usman dan Fodio

Fodio, was a Fulani scholar, Sunni Islamic religious teacher, revolutionary, and philosopher who founded the Sokoto Caliphate and ruled as its first caliph.

Fodio, was a Fulani scholar, Sunni Islamic religious teacher, revolutionary, and philosopher who founded the Sokoto Caliphate and ruled as its first caliph.

Sokoto Caliphate in the 19th century
Usman Ibn Fodio Calligraphy

In early life, Usman became well-educated in Islamic studies and soon, he began to preach Sunni Islam throughout Nigeria and Cameroon.

Yoruba vowel diagram, adopted from Bamgboṣe (1969:166). Oral vowels are marked by black dots, while the colored regions indicate the ranges in possible quality of the nasal vowels.

Yoruba language

Yoruba (Yor.

Yoruba (Yor.

Yoruba vowel diagram, adopted from Bamgboṣe (1969:166). Oral vowels are marked by black dots, while the colored regions indicate the ranges in possible quality of the nasal vowels.

As a pluricentric language, it is primarily spoken in a dialectal area spanning Nigeria and Benin with smaller migrated communities in Côte d'Ivoire, Sierra Leone and The Gambia.

Umaru Musa Yar'Adua

Nigerian politician who was the President of Nigeria from 2007 to 2010.

Nigerian politician who was the President of Nigeria from 2007 to 2010.

First Lady Turai Yar'Adua.
At the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm in 2007 (Yar'Adua at the very right)

Various political and religious figures in Nigeria had visited him during his illness saying he would make a recovery.