Nightmare

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A nightmare, also called a bad dream, is an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong emotional response from the mind, typically fear but also despair, anxiety and great sadness.wikipedia
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Dream

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A nightmare, also called a bad dream, is an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong emotional response from the mind, typically fear but also despair, anxiety and great sadness.
Dreams can have varying natures, such as being frightening, exciting, magical, melancholic, adventurous, or sexual.

Sleep

sleepingsleep architectureasleep
After a nightmare, a person will often awaken in a state of distress and may be unable to return to sleep for a short period of time.
It is the main occasion for dreams (or nightmares), and is associated with desynchronized and fast brain waves, eye movements, loss of muscle tone, and suspension of homeostasis.

Mare (folklore)

maremaramora
The word "nightmare" is derived from the Old English "mare", a mythological demon or goblin who torments others with frightening dreams.
A Mare (mære, ; mara in Old High German and Old Norse) is a malicious entity in Germanic and Slavic folklore that rides on people's chests while they sleep, bringing on bad dreams (or "nightmares").

Fear

terrorapprehensionfears
A nightmare, also called a bad dream, is an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong emotional response from the mind, typically fear but also despair, anxiety and great sadness.

Nightmare disorder

Nightmare disorder, also known as dream anxiety disorder, is a sleep disorder characterized by frequent nightmares.

Night terror

night terrorspavor nocturnusSleep terrors
Night terrors have been known since ancient times, although it was impossible to differentiate them from nightmares until rapid eye movement was studied.

Hag

HagsHag'' in folklorebeldam
A hag, or "the Old Hag", was a nightmare spirit in English and anglophone North American folklore.

Nocnitsa

The Notsnitsa in Slavic mythology, is a nightmare spirit that also goes by the name kriksy, plaksy, plachky, plaksivicy, kriksy-varaksy, kriksy-plaksy, night hag, night maiden.

False awakening

Continuum (dream)dream within a dreamdreams within dreams
The resulting panic is often strong enough to jar the person awake for real (much like from a nightmare).

Moroi

The origins of the term "moroi" are unclear, but it is thought by the Romanian Academy to have possibly originated from the Old Slavonic word mora ("nightmare") – cf.

Lucid dream

lucid dreaminglucid dreamslucid
It has been suggested that those who suffer from nightmares could benefit from the ability to be aware they are indeed dreaming.

Sleep paralysis

Phi Amold haghag ridden
The original definition of sleep paralysis was codified by Samuel Johnson in his A Dictionary of the English Language as nightmare, a term that evolved into our modern definition.

Depression (mood)

depressiondepressedmelancholy
A nightmare, also called a bad dream, is an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong emotional response from the mind, typically fear but also despair, anxiety and great sadness.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
A nightmare, also called a bad dream, is an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong emotional response from the mind, typically fear but also despair, anxiety and great sadness. Nightmares can have physical causes such as sleeping in an uncomfortable position or having a fever, or psychological causes such as stress or anxiety.

Sadness

sadsaddenedSorrow
A nightmare, also called a bad dream, is an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong emotional response from the mind, typically fear but also despair, anxiety and great sadness.

Human body

bodyhuman anatomyhuman physiology
Nightmares can have physical causes such as sleeping in an uncomfortable position or having a fever, or psychological causes such as stress or anxiety.

Fever

pyrexiafebrileague
Nightmares can have physical causes such as sleeping in an uncomfortable position or having a fever, or psychological causes such as stress or anxiety.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Nightmares can have physical causes such as sleeping in an uncomfortable position or having a fever, or psychological causes such as stress or anxiety.

Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressemotional stress
Nightmares can have physical causes such as sleeping in an uncomfortable position or having a fever, or psychological causes such as stress or anxiety.

Metabolism

metabolicmetabolizedmetabolic pathways
Eating before going to sleep, which triggers an increase in the body's metabolism and brain activity, is a potential stimulus for nightmares.

Brain

brain functionmammalian braincerebral
Eating before going to sleep, which triggers an increase in the body's metabolism and brain activity, is a potential stimulus for nightmares.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
Recurrent nightmares may require medical help, as they can interfere with sleeping patterns and cause insomnia.

Insomnia

trouble sleepingsleeplessnessdifficulty sleeping
Recurrent nightmares may require medical help, as they can interfere with sleeping patterns and cause insomnia.

Sleep apnea

sleep apnoeaobstructive sleep apneasleep apnea syndromes
A study researching the causes of nightmares focuses on patients who have sleep apnea.

A Christmas Carol

Christmas Carol1843 novellanovella of the same name
There is a view, possibly featured in the story A Christmas Carol, that eating cheese before sleep can cause nightmares, but there is little scientific evidence for this phenomenon.