Nitrogen

NN 2 dinitrogennitrogen gasnitrogenousLiquid nitrogennitrogen compoundsnitrogensmephiticmephitic air
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.wikipedia
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Daniel Rutherford

D. RutherfordRutherford, Daniel
It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772.
Daniel Rutherford (3 November 1749 – 15 December 1819) was a Scottish physician, chemist and botanist who is most famous for the isolation of nitrogen in 1772.

Pnictogen

group 15group Vpnictide
Nitrogen is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens.
This group is also known as the nitrogen family. It consists of the elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), and perhaps the chemically uncharacterized synthetic element moscovium (Mc).

Amino acid

amino acidsresiduesresidue
Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate.
The key elements of an amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids.

Ammonia

NH 3 anhydrous ammonialiquid ammonia
Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH 3 . The simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell.

Nitrogen cycle

nitrogen metabolismnitrogennitrogen cycling
The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere.
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.

Nitrate

nitratesNO 3 NO 3 −
The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates.
The anion is the conjugate base of nitric acid, consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identically bonded oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement.

Cyanide

cyanoCNcyanides
Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen.
This group, known as the cyano group, consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom.

Atmosphere of Earth

airatmosphereEarth's atmosphere
At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a colourless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N 2 . Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere, making it the most abundant uncombined element.
By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
For example, atmospheric air is primarily a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, and native solid elements occur in alloys, such as that of iron and nickel.

Carbon monoxide

COcarbon monoxide (CO)carbon monoxide poisoning
The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide (CO), dominates nitrogen chemistry.
It is the simplest oxocarbon and is isoelectronic with other triply-bonded diatomic molecules having ten valence electrons, including the cyanide anion, the nitrosonium cation and molecular nitrogen.

Composition of the human body

human bodybodyfor human life
The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen.
Almost 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus.

Azo compound

azoazo dyesazo compounds
Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Greek άζωτικός "no life", as it is an asphyxiant gas; this name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Russian, and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds.
The name azo comes from azote, the French name for nitrogen that is derived from the Greek ἀ- (a-, "not") + ζωή (zōē, life).

Diatomic molecule

diatomicdiatomic moleculesdi-
At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a colourless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N 2 . Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere, making it the most abundant uncombined element. The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide (CO), dominates nitrogen chemistry.
The only chemical elements that form stable homonuclear diatomic molecules at standard temperature and pressure (STP) (or typical laboratory conditions of 1 bar and 25 °C) are the gases hydrogen (H 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), fluorine (F 2 ), and chlorine (Cl 2 ).

Nitric oxide

NOnitrogen monoxidenitric oxide (NO)
Many drugs are mimics or prodrugs of natural nitrogen-containing signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin and nitroprusside control blood pressure by metabolizing into nitric oxide.
Nitric oxide is a free radical, i.e., it has an unpaired electron, which is sometimes denoted by a dot in its chemical formula, i.e., ·NO.

Fertilizer

fertiliserfertilizersnitrogen fertilizer
Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, and fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems. The earliest military, industrial, and agricultural applications of nitrogen compounds used saltpeter (sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate), most notably in gunpowder, and later as fertiliser.
Nitrogen (N): leaf growth

Gas

gasesgaseousg
At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a colourless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N 2 . Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere, making it the most abundant uncombined element.
The only chemical elements that are stable diatomic homonuclear molecules at STP are hydrogen (H 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), and two halogens: fluorine (F 2 ) and chlorine (Cl 2 ).

Asphyxiant gas

asphyxiantasphyxiantsasphyxiant gases
Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Greek άζωτικός "no life", as it is an asphyxiant gas; this name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Russian, and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds.
Notable examples of asphyxiant gases are nitrogen, argon, helium, butane and propane.

Potassium nitrate

saltpetersaltpetreKNO 3
The English word nitrogen (1794) entered the language from the French nitrogène, coined in 1790 by French chemist Jean-Antoine Chaptal (1756–1832), from the French nitre (potassium nitrate, also called saltpeter) and the French suffix -gène, "producing", from the Greek -γενής (-genes, "begotten").
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO 3 . It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K + and nitrate ions NO 3 −, and is therefore an alkali metal nitrate.

Nitrogen fixation

nitrogen-fixingfix nitrogennitrogen fixing
Nitrogen fixation by industrial processes like the Frank–Caro process (1895–1899) and Haber–Bosch process (1908–1913) eased this shortage of nitrogen compounds, to the extent that half of global food production (see Applications) now relies on synthetic nitrogen fertilisers.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the air is converted into ammonia (NH 3 ) or related nitrogenous compounds.

Sodium nitrate

saltpeterNaNO 3 saltpetre
The earliest military, industrial, and agricultural applications of nitrogen compounds used saltpeter (sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate), most notably in gunpowder, and later as fertiliser.
Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO 3 . This alkali metal nitrate salt is also known as Chili saltpeter (because large deposits of this salt can be found in Chile) to distinguish it from ordinary saltpeter, potassium nitrate.

Eutrophication

eutrophiceutrophicatedeutrophied
Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, and fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems.
Elevated levels of atmospheric compounds of nitrogen can increase nitrogen availability.

Nitride

nitridesNN 3−
The nitride anion, N 3−, is much larger at 146 pm, similar to that of the oxide (O 2− : 140 pm) and fluoride (F − : 133 pm) anions.
In chemistry, a nitride is a compound of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of −3. Nitrides are a large class of compounds with a wide range of properties and applications.

Hydrazine

hydrazine hydratehydrazineshydrazinium
Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Greek άζωτικός "no life", as it is an asphyxiant gas; this name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Russian, and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds.
The production of the highly stable dinitrogen from the hydrazine derivative helps to drive the reaction.

Inert gas

inertinert gasesinert atmosphere
Nitrogen gas was inert enough that Antoine Lavoisier referred to it as "mephitic air" or azote, from the Greek word άζωτικός (azotikos), "no life".
Purified argon and nitrogen gases are most commonly used as inert gases due to their high natural abundance (78.2% N 2, 1% Ar in air) and low relative cost.

Frank–Caro process

nitrolim
Nitrogen fixation by industrial processes like the Frank–Caro process (1895–1899) and Haber–Bosch process (1908–1913) eased this shortage of nitrogen compounds, to the extent that half of global food production (see Applications) now relies on synthetic nitrogen fertilisers.
The Frank–Caro process, also called cyanamide process, is the nitrogen fixation reaction of calcium carbide with nitrogen gas in a reactor vessel at about 1,000°C.