Nitrogen

NN 2 dinitrogennitrogen gasnitrogenousLiquid nitrogennitrogen compoundsmolecular nitrogennitrogen atomnitrogens
Nitrogen is the chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7.wikipedia
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Daniel Rutherford

D. RutherfordProfessor Daniel RutherfordRutherford, Daniel
It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772.
Daniel Rutherford (3 November 1749 – 15 December 1819) was a Scottish physician, chemist and botanist who is known for the isolation of nitrogen in 1772.

Pnictogen

group 15pnictidegroup V
Nitrogen is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens.
It consists of the elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), and perhaps the chemically uncharacterized synthetic element moscovium (Mc).

Amino acid

amino acidsresiduesresidue
Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate.
The key elements of an amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N), although other elements are found in the side chains of certain amino acids.

Ammonia

NH 3 anhydrous ammonialiquid ammonia
Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH 3.

Nitrogen cycle

nitrogen metabolismnitrogennitrogen cycling
The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere.
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Nitrogen is the chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7.

Cyanide

cyanocyanogenicCN
Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen.
This group, known as the cyano group, consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom.

Atmosphere of Earth

airEarth's atmosphereatmosphere
Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere, making it the most abundant uncombined element.
By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
Nitrogen is the chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7.
For example, atmospheric air is primarily a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, and native solid elements occur in alloys, such as that of iron and nickel.

Carbon monoxide

COcarbon monoxide (CO)carbon monoxide poisoning
The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide (CO), dominates nitrogen chemistry.
It is the simplest oxocarbon and is isoelectronic with other triply-bonded diatomic molecules having ten valence electrons, including the cyanide anion, the nitrosonium cation and molecular nitrogen.

Composition of the human body

human bodybodyhuman body contains
The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen.
Almost 99% of the mass of the human body is made up of six elements: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus.

Nitrate

nitratesNO 3 − NO 3
The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates.
The anion is the conjugate base of nitric acid, consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identically bonded oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement.

Azo compound

azoazo dyesazo compounds
Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Greek ἀζωτικός "no life", as it is an asphyxiant gas; this name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Russian, Romanian and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds.
The name azo comes from azote, the French name for nitrogen that is derived from the Greek ἀ- (a-, "not") + ζωή (zōē, life).

Fertilizer

fertiliserfertilizersnitrogen fertilizer
Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, and fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems. The earliest military, industrial, and agricultural applications of nitrogen compounds used saltpeter (sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate), most notably in gunpowder, and later as fertiliser.
This process was used to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N 2 ) into nitric acid (HNO 3 ), one of several chemical processes generally referred to as nitrogen fixation.

Diatomic molecule

diatomicdiatomic moleculesdi-
The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide (CO), dominates nitrogen chemistry. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a colourless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N 2.
The only chemical elements that form stable homonuclear diatomic molecules at standard temperature and pressure (STP) (or typical laboratory conditions of 1 bar and 25 °C) are the gases hydrogen (H 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), fluorine (F 2 ), and chlorine (Cl 2 ).

Nitric oxide

NOnitrogen monoxidenitric oxide (NO)
Many drugs are mimics or prodrugs of natural nitrogen-containing signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin and nitroprusside control blood pressure by metabolizing into nitric oxide.
Nitric oxide is a free radical, i.e., it has an unpaired electron, which is sometimes denoted by a dot in its chemical formula, i.e., ·NO.

Gas

gasesgaseousgaseous state
At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a colourless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N 2.
The only chemical elements that are stable diatomic homonuclear molecules at STP are hydrogen (H 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ), oxygen (O 2 ), and two halogens: fluorine (F 2 ) and chlorine (Cl 2 ).

Asphyxiant gas

asphyxiantasphyxiantsasphyxiant or toxic gas
Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Greek ἀζωτικός "no life", as it is an asphyxiant gas; this name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Russian, Romanian and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds.
Notable examples of asphyxiant gases are methane, nitrogen, argon, helium, butane and propane.

Potassium nitrate

saltpetersaltpetreKNO 3
The English word nitrogen (1794) entered the language from the French nitrogène, coined in 1790 by French chemist Jean-Antoine Chaptal (1756–1832), from the French nitre (potassium nitrate, also called saltpeter) and the French suffix -gène, "producing", from the Greek -γενής (-genes, "begotten").
Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO 3.

Nitrogen fixation

nitrogen-fixingfix nitrogennitrogen fixing
Nitrogen fixation by industrial processes like the Frank–Caro process (1895–1899) and Haber–Bosch process (1908–1913) eased this shortage of nitrogen compounds, to the extent that half of global food production (see Applications) now relies on synthetic nitrogen fertilisers.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which molecular nitrogen in the air is converted into ammonia or related nitrogenous compounds in soil.

Sodium nitrate

saltpeterNaNO 3 saltpetre
The earliest military, industrial, and agricultural applications of nitrogen compounds used saltpeter (sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate), most notably in gunpowder, and later as fertiliser.
Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO 3.

Hydrazine

hydrazine hydratehydraziniumN 2 H 4
Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Greek ἀζωτικός "no life", as it is an asphyxiant gas; this name is instead used in many languages, such as French, Russian, Romanian and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds.
Hydrazine breaks down in the cell to form nitrogen and hydrogen which bonds with oxygen, releasing water.

Nitride

nitridesNmetal nitride
The nitride anion, N 3−, is much larger at 146 pm, similar to that of the oxide (O 2− : 140 pm) and fluoride (F − : 133 pm) anions.
In chemistry, a nitride is a compound of nitrogen where nitrogen has a formal oxidation state of −3.

Eutrophication

eutrophiceutrophicatedeutrophied
Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, and fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems.
Elevated levels of atmospheric compounds of nitrogen can increase nitrogen availability.

Inert gas

inertinert gasesinert atmosphere
Nitrogen gas was inert enough that Antoine Lavoisier referred to it as "mephitic air" or azote, from the Greek word άζωτικός (azotikos), "no life".
Purified argon and nitrogen gases are most commonly used as inert gases due to their high natural abundance (78.3% N 2, 1% Ar in air) and low relative cost.