Nitrous oxide

laughing gasN 2 OnitrousN2Odinitrogen monoxideNOSNitronitrous oxide (N 2 O)NOboost
Not to be confused with nitric oxide (formula NO), nitrogen dioxide, or generic nitrogen oxide pollutants NOx.wikipedia
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Recreational use of nitrous oxide

recreational useNitrous oxide
Its colloquial name "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic.
Recreational use of nitrous oxide is the inhalation of nitrous oxide gas for its euphoriant effects.

Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry DavyDavySir Humphry Davy, Bt
Its colloquial name "laughing gas", coined by Humphry Davy, is due to the euphoric effects upon inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anaesthetic.
In 1799 Davy experimented with nitrous oxide and was astonished at how it made him laugh, so he nicknamed it "laughing gas", and wrote about its potential anaesthetic properties in relieving pain during surgery.

Global warming

climate changeglobal climate changeanthropogenic climate change
Being the third most important long-lived greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide substantially contributes to global warming.
The largest human influence has been the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.

Hybrid-propellant rocket

hybrid rockethybridhybrid motor
Nitrous oxide has been the oxidiser of choice in several hybrid rocket designs (using solid fuel with a liquid or gaseous oxidiser).
O. Lutz, W. Noeggerath, and Andrussow tested a 10 kN hybrid rocket motor using coal and gaseous N 2 O as the propellants.

Nitrogen oxide

nitrogen oxidesoxides of nitrogenNO x
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.

Nitrous oxide engine

nitrousnitrous oxideNitrous Oxide Systems
In vehicle racing, nitrous oxide (often referred to as just "nitrous") allows the engine to burn more fuel by providing more oxygen than air alone, resulting in a more powerful combustion.
A nitrous oxide engine is an internal combustion engine in which oxygen for burning the fuel comes from the decomposition of nitrous oxide, N 2 O, rather than air.

GM-1

GM 1engine boosts
The technique was used during World War II by Luftwaffe aircraft with the GM-1 system to boost the power output of aircraft engines.
GM-1 (Göring Mischung 1) was a system for injecting nitrous oxide (laughing gas) into aircraft engines that was used by the Luftwaffe in World War II.

Cooking spray

non-stick cooking spray
Its most common uses in this context are in aerosol whipped cream canisters and cooking sprays. Similarly, cooking spray, which is made from various types of oils combined with lecithin (an emulsifier), may use nitrous oxide as a propellant.
Cooking spray is a spray form of an oil as a lubricant, lecithin as an emulsifier, and a propellant such as food-grade alcohol, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide or propane.

SpaceShipOne

Scaled Composites SpaceShipOneSpace Ship OneSpaceship One
The combination of nitrous oxide with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene fuel has been used by SpaceShipOne and others.
Tier One uses a hybrid rocket motor supplied by SpaceDev, with solid hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB, or rubber) fuel and liquid nitrous oxide oxidizer.

Whipped cream

whipped toppingchantilly creamCrème Chantilly
Its most common uses in this context are in aerosol whipped cream canisters and cooking sprays.
Whipped cream may also be made in a whipping siphon, typically using nitrous oxide as the gas, as carbon dioxide tends to give a sour taste (cf. soda syphon).

Oxidizing agent

oxidizeroxidantoxidants
At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidizer similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide may be used as an oxidiser in a rocket motor.

Anesthesia

anaesthesiaanestheticanesthetized
Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain reducing effects.
On-demand pain medications typically include either opioid or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs but can also make use of novel approaches such as inhaled nitrous oxide or ketamine.

General anaesthetic

general anestheticgeneral anestheticsanesthetic
Nitrous oxide is a weak general anaesthetic, and so is generally not used alone in general anaesthesia, but used as a carrier gas (mixed with oxygen) for more powerful general anaesthetic drugs such as sevoflurane or desflurane.
They are often combined with nitrous oxide.

Whipped-cream charger

whippetscartridges
This is especially true of non-medical formulations such as whipped-cream chargers (also known as "whippets" or "nangs"), which never contain oxygen, since oxygen makes cream rancid.
A whipped cream charger is a steel cylinder or cartridge filled with nitrous oxide (N 2 O) that is used as a whipping agent in a whipped cream dispenser.

Rocket

rocketsrocketryrocket scientist
Nitrous oxide may be used as an oxidiser in a rocket motor.
Sometimes the propellant is not burned but still undergoes a chemical reaction, and can be a 'monopropellant' such as hydrazine, nitrous oxide or hydrogen peroxide that can be catalytically decomposed to hot gas.

Ozone layer

stratospheric ozoneozoneozone shield
Nitrous oxide occurs in small amounts in the atmosphere, but recently has been found to be a major scavenger of stratospheric ozone, with an impact comparable to that of CFCs.
The ozone layer can be depleted by free radical catalysts, including nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), hydroxyl (OH), atomic chlorine (Cl), and atomic bromine (Br).

Propellant

solid propellantpropellantssolid-propellant
Similarly, cooking spray, which is made from various types of oils combined with lecithin (an emulsifier), may use nitrous oxide as a propellant.
Examples of can propellants include nitrous oxide that is dissolved in canned whipped cream, and the dimethyl ether or low-boiling alkane used in hair spray.

NMDA receptor antagonist

NMDA antagonistNMDA antagonistsNMDA receptor antagonists
Like other NMDA antagonists, was suggested to produce neurotoxicity in the form of Olney's lesions in rodents upon prolonged (several hour) exposure.
Some NMDA receptor antagonists, such as ketamine, dextromethorphan (DXM), phencyclidine (PCP), methoxetamine (MXE), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), are popular recreational drugs used for their dissociative, hallucinogenic, and euphoriant properties.

Sevoflurane

Ultane
Nitrous oxide is a weak general anaesthetic, and so is generally not used alone in general anaesthesia, but used as a carrier gas (mixed with oxygen) for more powerful general anaesthetic drugs such as sevoflurane or desflurane.
It is often administered in a mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen.

Relative analgesia machine

Today, the gas is administered in hospitals by means of an automated relative analgesia machine, with an anaesthetic vaporiser and a medical ventilator, that delivers a precisely dosed and breath-actuated flow of nitrous oxide mixed with oxygen in a 2:1 ratio.
It delivers a mixture of nitrous oxide ("laughing gas") and oxygen.

High-power rocketry

high power rocketryhigh-power rockethigh power
It also is notably used in amateur and high power rocketry with various plastics as the fuel.
High-power rockets are predominantly powered by commercially available APCP-based motors or nitrous oxide-based hybrid motors.

NMDA receptor

NMDANMDARNMDA receptors
It moderately blocks NMDA and β-subunit-containing nACh channels, weakly inhibits AMPA, kainate, GABA and 5-HT receptors, and slightly potentiates GABA and glycine receptors.
The anaesthetic and analgesic effects of the drugs ketamine and nitrous oxide are partially because of their effects on NMDA receptor activity.

Rocket propellant

rocket fuelpropellantpropellants
It is also used as an oxidiser in rocket propellants, and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines.
However, modern composite structures handle this problem well, and when used with nitrous oxide and a solid rubber propellant (HTPB), relatively small percentage of fuel is needed anyway, so the combustion chamber is not especially large.

Nitrous oxide (medication)

EntonoxNitrous oxidegas and air
Nitrous oxide has significant medical uses, especially in surgery and dentistry, for its anaesthetic and pain reducing effects. Today, the gas is administered in hospitals by means of an automated relative analgesia machine, with an anaesthetic vaporiser and a medical ventilator, that delivers a precisely dosed and breath-actuated flow of nitrous oxide mixed with oxygen in a 2:1 ratio.
Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is itself active (does not require any changes in the body to become active), and so has an onset in roughly the lung–brain circulation time.

Agriculture

farmingagriculturalAgriculturist
It is estimated that 30% of the in the atmosphere is the result of human activity, chiefly agriculture.
It produces 65% of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO 2, ) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO 2 .) It also generates 64% of the ammonia emission.