No taxation without representation

taxation without representationwithout representationa lack of colonial representationby whom we are not representedcitizen in a city without representationcould not be taxeddid not include any representation from the coloniesfinancial burdenlacked British Parliamentary representationno right to levy taxes
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.wikipedia
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American Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary WarRevolutionary
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.
Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765.

Thirteen Colonies

American coloniescoloniescolonial
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.
These inter-colonial activities cultivated a sense of shared American identity and led to calls for protection of the colonists' "Rights as Englishmen", especially the principle of "no taxation without representation".

Stamp Act 1765

Stamp ActStamp Act of 17651765 Stamp Act
In short, many in those colonies believed that, as they were not directly represented in the distant British Parliament, any laws it passed affecting the colonists (such as the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act) were illegal under the Bill of Rights 1689, and were a denial of their rights as Englishmen. The Americans rejected the Stamp Act of 1765 brought in by British Prime Minister George Grenville, and violently rejected the remaining tax on tea imports, under the Tea Act passed in May 1773, at the Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773.
Their slogan was "No taxation without representation."

Patriot (American Revolution)

PatriotPatriotsWhig
In short, many in those colonies believed that, as they were not directly represented in the distant British Parliament, any laws it passed affecting the colonists (such as the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act) were illegal under the Bill of Rights 1689, and were a denial of their rights as Englishmen.
"No taxation without representation" was their slogan, referring to the lack of representation in the British Parliament.

Sugar Act

tax on sugar1764 Sugar ActCertain Duties in the British Colonies and Plantations in America, etc. Act 1763
In short, many in those colonies believed that, as they were not directly represented in the distant British Parliament, any laws it passed affecting the colonists (such as the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act) were illegal under the Bill of Rights 1689, and were a denial of their rights as Englishmen.
As protests against the Sugar Act developed, it was the economic impact rather than the constitutional issue of taxation without representation that was the main focus for the colonists.

Virtual representation

proper representationrepresented virtuallyvoting rights
Parliament initially contended that the colonists had virtual representation, but the idea "found little support on either side of the Atlantic".
This concept was famously expressed as "No taxation without representation".

Boston Tea Party

The Boston Tea PartyTea PartyBoston
The Americans rejected the Stamp Act of 1765 brought in by British Prime Minister George Grenville, and violently rejected the remaining tax on tea imports, under the Tea Act passed in May 1773, at the Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773.
Colonists objected to the Tea Act because they believed that it violated their rights as Englishmen to "no taxation without representation", that is, to be taxed only by their own elected representatives and not by a British parliament in which they were not represented.

Virginia

VACommonwealth of VirginiaVa.
Patrick Henry's resolution in the Virginia legislature implied that Americans possessed all the rights of Englishmen, that the principle of no taxation without representation was an essential part of the British Constitution, and that Virginia alone had the right to tax Virginians.
In the House of Burgesses, opposition to taxation without representation was led by Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee, among others.

Daniel Dulany the Younger

Daniel DulanyDaniel Dulaney
Moreover, even "If every inhabitant of America had the requisite freehold," said Daniel Dulany, "not one could vote, but upon the supposition of his ceasing to become an inhabitant of America, and becoming a resident of Great Britain."
His pamphlet Considerations on the Propriety of Imposing Taxes in the British Colonies. which argued against taxation without representation, has been described as "the ablest effort of this kind produced in America".

Representation (politics)

representationpolitical representationrepresentative
In short, many in those colonies believed that, as they were not directly represented in the distant British Parliament, any laws it passed affecting the colonists (such as the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act) were illegal under the Bill of Rights 1689, and were a denial of their rights as Englishmen.
Taxation without representation

Tea Party protests

Tea PartyTea Party protest2009 Tea Party protests
In 2009, the phrase "taxation without representation" was also used in the Tea Party protests, where protesters were upset over increased government spending and taxes, and specifically regarding a growing concern amongst the group that the U.S. government is increasingly relying upon a form of taxation without representation through increased regulatory levies and fees which are allegedly passed via unelected government employees who have no direct responsibility to voters and cannot be held accountable by the public through elections.
The name "Tea Party" is a reference to the Boston Tea Party, whose principal aim was to protest taxation without representation.

Sarah E. Wall

In the 1860s, suffragette Sarah E. Wall of Worcester, Massachusetts invoked the principle of "no taxation without representation", initiating an anti-tax protest in which she encouraged women not to pay taxes until they were granted the right to vote.
She lived in Worcester, Massachusetts, where she led a successful anti-tax protest that defended a woman's right not to pay taxation without representation.

Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms

Declaration of Causes
This work replied to the Continental Congress' July 6, 1775 Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms by proposing that, Had the Americans, instead of flying to arms, submitted the same supposed grievance [as the taxed though unrepresented Palatine counties in England had], in a peaceable and dutiful manner, to the Legislature, I can perceive no reason why their request should be refused.
Objectionable policies listed in the Declaration include taxation without representation, extended use of vice admiralty courts, the several Coercive Acts, and the Declaratory Act.

Vehicle registration plates of Washington, D.C.

District of ColumbiaD.C. vehicle license platesDistrict of Columbia vehicle license plates
In November 2000, the D.C. Department of Motor Vehicles began issuing license plates bearing the slogan "Taxation without representation".
Since November 2000, the standard Washington, D.C. license plate design has featured some form of the slogan "Taxation Without Representation", referring to the unique circumstance that the district's residents face, in which they must pay federal income tax but cannot elect a voting member of the United States Congress.

District of Columbia voting rights

full representation in Congressvoting representationvoting representation in Congress
In the United States, the phrase is used in Washington, D.C. as part of the campaign for a vote in Congress, to publicize the fact that Washington residents pay Federal taxes, but do not have representation in Congress.
This situation has given rise to the use of the phrase "Taxation Without Representation" by those in favor of granting D.C. voting representation in the Congress.

Samuel Johnson

JohnsonDr JohnsonDr. Johnson
"We virtually and implicitly allow the institutions of any government of which we enjoy the benefit and solicit the protection," declared Samuel Johnson in his political pamphlet Taxation No Tyranny.
The last of these pamphlets, Taxation No Tyranny (1775), was a defence of the Coercive Acts and a response to the Declaration of Rights of the First Continental Congress of America, which protested against taxation without representation.

Tax resistance in the United States

Tax resistance in the United States
In addition, the philosophy of tax resistance, from the "no taxation without representation" axiom that served as a foundation of the Revolution to the assertion of individual conscience in Henry David Thoreau's Civil Disobedience, has been an important plank of American political philosophy.

Flag of Washington, D.C.

Flagflag of the District of ColumbiaD.C. flag
In 2002, the Council of the District of Columbia authorized adding the slogan to the D.C. flag, but no new flag design was approved.
to the center star and the words "Taxation Without Representation" in white to the two red bars, a slogan already in use on the District's license plates.

Washington, D.C.

WashingtonDistrict of ColumbiaWashington, DC
In the United States, the phrase is used in Washington, D.C. as part of the campaign for a vote in Congress, to publicize the fact that Washington residents pay Federal taxes, but do not have representation in Congress.
Efforts to raise awareness about the issue have included campaigns by grassroots organizations and featuring the city's unofficial motto, "Taxation Without Representation", on D.C. vehicle license plates.

John Stephens (editor)

John StephensJohn
John Stephens and his South Australian Register were among those who campaigned for democratic reform.
A public meeting held at Mount Barker, chaired by John Dunn showed popular support among farmers for his independence and opposition to taxation without representation.

Slogan

sloganssloganeeringad slogan
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.

Colonial history of the United States

colonialcolonial Americacolonial period
"No taxation without representation" is a slogan originating during the 1700s that summarized a primary grievance of the American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies, which was one of the major causes of the American Revolution.

Bill of Rights 1689

Bill of Rights1689 Bill of RightsEnglish Bill of Rights
In short, many in those colonies believed that, as they were not directly represented in the distant British Parliament, any laws it passed affecting the colonists (such as the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act) were illegal under the Bill of Rights 1689, and were a denial of their rights as Englishmen.

Rights of Englishmen

rights as Englishmensuch rightsEnglish liberties
In short, many in those colonies believed that, as they were not directly represented in the distant British Parliament, any laws it passed affecting the colonists (such as the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act) were illegal under the Bill of Rights 1689, and were a denial of their rights as Englishmen.

English Civil War

Civil WarCivil WarsEnglish Revolution
The firm belief that a government should not tax a populace unless that populace is somehow represented in the government developed in the English Civil War following the refusal of parliamentarian John Hampden to pay ship money tax.