Nobility

The House of Lords is the upper legislature of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is filled with members that are selected from the nobility (both hereditary titleholders and those ennobled only for their individual lives).
Nobility offered protection in exchange for service
French aristocrats, c. 1774
A French political cartoon of the three orders of feudal society (1789). The rural third estate carries the clergy and the nobility.
Opening of the Hungarian Diet (Országgyűlés) with the members of hungarian nobility in the Royal Palace, 1865
Polish magnates 1576–1586
Polish magnates 1697–1795
Hungarian prince Ferenc József in the typical dress of the Hungarian nobility, 18th century
Count Carl Robert Mannerheim (1835–1914), a Finnish aristocrat, businessman, and the father of Baron C. G. E. Mannerheim, the Marshal of Finland
Russian boyars
The Battle of Tewkesbury in 1471. Large numbers of English nobility perished in the Wars of the Roses
A Maratha Durbar showing the Chief (Raja) and the nobles (Sardars, Jagirdars, Istamuradars & Mankaris) of the state.
Illustration of Nair nobles in 18th century Kerala, India. The Nair caste was a martial nobility, similar to the Samurai of Japan.
In Korea, royalty and yangban aristocrats were carried in litters called gama. A Korean gama, circa 1890.
An aristocratic family in Lhasa, Tibet in 1936.
Emperor Farrukhsiyar Bestows a Jewel on a Nobleman
Maratha Peshwa Madhavrao II, surrounded by nobles in his court in 18th-century India.
Japanese samurai, 1798
Typical costume of a family belonging to the Principalía of the late 19th century Philippines. Exhibit in the Villa Escudero Museum, San Pablo, Laguna.
Heraldic Crown of Hispanic Hidalgos.
A pre-colonial Tagalog couple belonging to the Datu class or nobility as depicted in the Boxer Codex of the 16th century.
Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia (center) and members of the imperial court
King Radama I of Madagascar was from the Andriana stratum of the Merina people.
The Emir of Kano, Muhammadu Sanusi II, on his throne in 2016.
Angélica Larrea, Queen Consort of the Afro-Bolivians, in 2012. The queen is the wife of King Julio Pinedo.
Portrait of Marquis of Paraná, Prime Minister of Brazil.
Regent of Bandung, Java, Dutch East Indies, with his pajung bearer – 1863–1865
Sons of Crown Prince Krom Loeang of Siam, Bangkok, 1862
A Siamese noble in a hammock, 1900
Burmese nobles and servants

Social class found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy.

- Nobility
The House of Lords is the upper legislature of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is filled with members that are selected from the nobility (both hereditary titleholders and those ennobled only for their individual lives).

89 related topics

Alpha

Gabriel de la Cueva, 5th Duke of Alburquerque (1515–1571)

Spanish nobility

Gabriel de la Cueva, 5th Duke of Alburquerque (1515–1571)
Palacio de Liria in Madrid, home of the Dukes of Alba
Leonor, Princess of Asturias, heir presumptive to the Spanish throne
Cristóbal Colón de Carvajal, 18th Duke of Veragua
Leoncio Alonso González de Gregorio, 22nd Duke of Medina Sidonia
Cayetana Álvarez de Toledo, 14th Marchioness of Casa Fuerte
Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo, daughter of King Juan Carlos I
Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart, 18th Duchess of Alba (1926–2014), was the woman with the most titles of nobility in the world
Salvador Dalí, 1st Marquess of Dalí de Púbol
The crown of the Spanish monarch
The crown of the Prince or Princess of Asturias (heir apparent)
The coronet of an infante (prince)
A coronet of a grandee
A coronet of a Spanish duke
A coronet of a Spanish marquess
A coronet of a Spanish count
A coronet of a Spanish viscount
A coronet of a Spanish baron
A coronet of a Spanish señor (lord)
A coronet of a Spanish Hidalgo
Álvaro de Luna, Duke of Trujillo (1390–1453)
Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 1st Duke of the Infantado (1417–1479)
Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, Duke of Terranova and Santangelo, Andria, Montalto and Sessa (1453–1515)
Pedro de Toledo y Zúñiga, 2nd Marquis of Villafranca del Bierzo (1484–1553)
Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba (1507–1582)
Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquess of Santa Cruz (1526–1588)
Luis de Velasco, Marquess of Salinas (1534–1617)
García Hurtado de Mendoza, 5h Marquess of Cañete (1535–1609)
Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia (1550–1615)
Juan Alonso Pimentel de Herrera, 5th Duke of Benavente (c. 1550–1621)
Francisco Gómez de Sandoval, 1st Duke of Lerma (1552–1625)
Ambrogio Spínola, 1st Marquess of Balbases (1569–1630)
Álvaro de Bazán, 2nd Marquess of Santa Cruz (1571–1646)
Pedro Téllez-Girón, 3rd Duke of Osuna (1574–1624)
Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares (1587–1645)
Diego López Pacheco, 7th Duke of Escalona (1599–1653)
Luis de Benavides Carrillo, Marquess of Caracena (1608–1668)
Pedro Nuño Colón de Portugal, 6th Duke of Veragua (1628–1673)
Íñigo Melchor de Velasco, 7th Duke of Frías (1635–1696)
Cardinal Luis Manuel Fernández de Portocarrero (1635–1709)
Juan Tomas Enriquez de Cabrera, 7th Duke of Medina de Rioseco (1646–1705)
Gregorio María de Silva y Mendoza, 9th Duke of the Infantado (1649–1693)
Baltasar de Zúñiga, 1st Duke of Arión (1658–1727)
Luis Francisco de la Cerda, 9th Duke of Medinaceli (1660–1711)
Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 8th Duke of Alburquerque, (1619–1676)
Pedro Cebrián, 5th Count of Fuenclara (1687–1752)
Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, 10th Count of Aranda (1718–1798)
José Moñino, 1st Count of Floridablanca (1728–1808)
María Josefa Pimentel, Duchess of Osuna (1752–1834)
Pedro Téllez-Girón, 9th Duke of Osuna (1755–1807)
María Cayetana de Silva, 13th Duchess of Alba (1762–1802)
Pedro de Alcántara Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, 14th Duke of Medina Sidonia (1724–1779)
José Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba (1756–1796)
Francisco de Borja Álvarez de Toledo, 12th Marquis of Villafranca (1763–1821)
Don Pedro de Alcántara Álvarez de Toledo, 13th Duke of the Infantado (1768–1841)
José Miguel de Carvajal-Vargas, 2nd Duke of San Carlos (1771–1828)
María Teresa de Borbón, 15th Countess of Chinchón (1779–1828)
José Rafael de Silva Fernández de Híjar, 12th Duke of Híjar (1776–1863)
José María Queipo de Llano, 7th Count of Toreno (1786–1843)
Francisco Serrano, 1st Duke of la Torre (1810–1885)
Ángel de Saavedra, 3rd Duke of Rivas (1815–1854)
Francisco Javier Azlor de Aragón, 6th Duke of Granada de Ega (1842–1919)
Infante Juan, Count of Barcelona (1941–1977)

Spanish nobles are persons who possess the legal status of hereditary nobility according to the laws and traditions of the Spanish monarchy and those who hold personal nobility as bestowed by one of the three highest orders of knighthood of the Kingdom, namely the Order of the Golden Fleece, the Order of Charles III and the Order of Isabella the Catholic.

The Code Of Honor—A Duel in the Bois De Boulogne, Near Paris, wood-engraving after Godefroy Durand, Harper's Weekly (January 1875)

Duel

Arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules.

Arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules.

The Code Of Honor—A Duel in the Bois De Boulogne, Near Paris, wood-engraving after Godefroy Durand, Harper's Weekly (January 1875)
Depiction of a judicial combat in the Dresden codex of the Sachsenspiegel (early to mid-14th century), illustrating the provision that the two combatants must "share the sun", i.e. align themselves perpendicular to the sun so that neither has an advantage.
Commemorative poster for the fourth centennial of the Disfida di Barletta, the Challenge of Barletta, fought on 13 February 1503 between 13 Italian and 13 French knights all shown wearing full plate armour.
Minamoto no Yoshihira and Taira no Shigemori (Japan in 1159)
Dueling remained highly popular in European society, despite various attempts at banning the practice.
German students of a Burschenschaft fighting a sabre duel, around 1900, painting by Georg Mühlberg (1863–1925)
An anti-dueling sermon written by an acquaintance of Alexander Hamilton.
A 1902 illustration showing Alexander Hamilton fighting his fatal duel with Vice President Aaron Burr, July 1804
Pistol dueling as an associate event at the 1908 London Olympic Games
The fictional pistol duel between Eugene Onegin and Vladimir Lensky. Watercolour by Ilya Repin (1899)
Depiction of the pistol duel of Alexander Pushkin vs. Georges d'Anthès, January 1837
Wild Bill Hickok's duel with Davis Tutt became the quintessential quick draw duel in US history.
An Act for the punishing and preventing of Duelling (1728), Massachusetts Bay Colony
Gada (mace) duel between Bhima and Duryodhana
Depiction of the duel of Miyamoto Musashi vs. Sasaki Kojirō

Duels were fought not so much to kill the opponent as to gain "satisfaction", that is, to restore one's honor by demonstrating a willingness to risk one's life for it, and as such the tradition of dueling was originally reserved for the male members of nobility; however, in the modern era, it extended to those of the upper classes generally.

Miguel López de Legazpi

Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in modern-day Mexico, arriving in Cebu in the Philippine Islands in 1565.

Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in modern-day Mexico, arriving in Cebu in the Philippine Islands in 1565.

Birthplace of López de Legazpi in Zumarraga, Basque Country
A route of the Spanish expeditions in the Philippines.
Statue of López de Legazpi outside of Fort San Pedro, Cebu City
Statue of López de Legazpi in Zumarraga, Spain
López de Legazpi-Urdaneta Monument in Manila
Miguel López de Legazpi and Andrés de Urdaneta, Manila
The mortal remains of López de Legazpi are interred in the San Agustin Church, Manila.<ref name="commons.wikimedia.org">{{Cite web | url=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SanAgustinChurch,Manilajf0364_08.JPG | title=English: Tombs of| date=21 March 2013}}</ref>
Tomb of Miguel López de Legazpi, Manila<ref name="commons.wikimedia.org"/>
López de Legazpi on a 500 peso banknote, 1936
Monument of López de Legazpi at the city hall of the Philippine city named after him

He was born to a noble family and lived in the town of Zumárraga, in the Basque province of Guipúzcoa in Spain.

A sixteenth-century French depiction of an hidalgo in the Spanish colonies

Hidalgo (nobility)

A sixteenth-century French depiction of an hidalgo in the Spanish colonies
Heraldic crown of Spanish hidalgos

An hidalgo or a fidalgo is a member of the Spanish or Portuguese nobility; the feminine forms of the terms are hidalga, in Spanish, and fidalga, in Portuguese and Galician.

Equestrian portrait of Isabella II, her husband Francis, King Consort of Spain (left), and Infante Francisco de Paula (right) with the most important Spanish statesmen and army officers of the time, many of whom were Grandees of Spain, by Charles Porion, 1862

Grandee

Official aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish nobility.

Official aristocratic title conferred on some Spanish nobility.

Equestrian portrait of Isabella II, her husband Francis, King Consort of Spain (left), and Infante Francisco de Paula (right) with the most important Spanish statesmen and army officers of the time, many of whom were Grandees of Spain, by Charles Porion, 1862
Coronet of a Grandee of Spain
Heraldic mantle of a Grandee of Spain

Outside Spain, the term can refer to other people of a somewhat comparable, exalted position, roughly synonymous with magnate; formerly a rank of high nobility (especially when it carried the right to a parliamentary seat).

Mr and Mrs Andrews (c. 1750) by Thomas Gainsborough, a couple from the landed gentry, a marriage alliance between two local landowning families – one gentry, one trade. National Gallery, London.

Landed gentry

Largely historical British social class of landowners who could live entirely from rental income, or at least had a country estate.

Largely historical British social class of landowners who could live entirely from rental income, or at least had a country estate.

Mr and Mrs Andrews (c. 1750) by Thomas Gainsborough, a couple from the landed gentry, a marriage alliance between two local landowning families – one gentry, one trade. National Gallery, London.
Typical entry in Burke's Landed Gentry (from Volume 2 of the 1898 edition).

The term landed gentry, although originally used to mean nobility, came to be used of the lesser nobility in England around 1540.

The Oseberg ship was part of a 9th-century burial.

Aristocracy of Norway

Aristocracy of Norway refers to modern and medieval aristocracy in Norway.

Aristocracy of Norway refers to modern and medieval aristocracy in Norway.

The Oseberg ship was part of a 9th-century burial.
Burial mound in Western Norway.
The Sun Chariot, Denmark, confirms consumption of luxury goods.
Oseberg skeletal remains of an aristocrat and perhaps her female servant or slave.
Seal of 14th-century Sysselmann Jørund Arnason.
Sculpture of Haakon Magnusson, Duke of Oslo, of Oppland, of Ryfylke, of the Faroe Islands, and of Shetland; later Haakon V.
The Båhus Fortress.
Austrått Fortress.
Ludvig Ludvigsen Munk of Nørholm.
The Faroe Islands in Norway.
Gørvel Fadersdotter of Giske.
Interpretation of the coat of arms of the Earl of Iceland. It derived partly from the Coat of arms of Norway and partly from that of the Icelandic Free State.
The Royal Seal of King Haakon VI. It contains the Coat of arms of Norway.
Attemptive reconstructional drawing of St Mary's Church.
Remains of St Mary's Church.
Norwegian dioceses 1153–1387.
The Nidaros Cathedral.
The Archbishop's palace in today's Trondheim.
Skálholt, centre of the former Diocese of Skálholt.
The Cathedral of Stavanger, former residence of the Bishop of Stavanger and twelve canons.
Hjelmsøya in Finnmark, where a setesvein named Sakse lived.
Karen Rosenkrantz, née Mowat.
Fritzøehus, palace of the Treschow family.
Copy of the front of the ''Decree on the Order of Precedence of 1699.
Nobles at the 1731 coronation of King Christian VI.
Letter of nobility of the Munthe af Morgenstierne family.
frameless
Rosendal, originally a feudal barony. Photographer: Nynorsk Wikipedia user Ekko
Norwegian-born Marcus Gerhard af Rosencrone (1738&ndash;1811), Count of Rosencrone; Prime Minister of the Dano-Norwegian Gehejme Government.
Execution of ex-count Struensee.
Artist: unknown
Severin Løvenskiold.
Seraphim plate of Prime Minister Mathias Sommerhielm.
Satirical cartoon depicting 'Skipper Børre' (the Count of Platen) and 'Uedel Skarnsberg' i.e. 'Ignoble Dirtberg' (Baron Ferdinand Carl Maria Wedel-Jarlsberg) in the 1829 Battle of the Square.
Ambassador Wilhelm Morgenstierne representing Norway when US President Truman signed the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949.
Many noble Norwegians are noble also in Denmark and as such included in the Yearbook of the Danish Nobility.
Christian Magnus Falsen (standing), ‘Father of the Constitution’. Painter: Oscar Wergeland
Wedel Jarlsberg Land on Svalbard is named after Fritz Wedel Jarlsberg, whose efforts contributed to Norway gaining sovereignty of this arctic archipelago in 1920. Photographer: Commons user Bjoertvedt
Count Wedel Square in Oslo. Photographer: Helge Høifødt
Erik Werenskiold's illustrations of the sagas are known to all Norwegians. This drawing is based on Queen Ragnhild's Dream.
A Danish box of firesticks depicting popular hero Tordenskiold.
Agnete Marie, Countess of Rosencrone, née Hielmstierne. After the Dano-Norwegian union ended in 1814, the Comital Foundation of Hielmstierne-Rosencrone was divided into one Danish and one Norwegian.
The interior of the Rød Manor is owned by the foundation The Anker Collections.
Caroline von Schimmelmann, Countess to Lindenborg, née Tugendreich Friedeborn.
Coat of arms of the Sinclair Earls of Orkney.
Artist: Commons user Jimmy44
A drawing based on a historical relief of Skule Bårdsson, Duke of Norway, who was a claimant to the throne. This title had a tactical function, being used mainly by heirs. Artist: Commons user FinnWikiNo
Seal of Baron Audun Hugleiksson.
Ludvig Holberg, Baron to Holberg. Painter: Jørgen Røed
Adam Johan Frederik Poulsen Trampe, Count of Trampe. Photographer: unknown
Fritz Wedel Jarlsberg, Baron of Jarlsberg.
Until the absolute monarchy was introduced in 1660, the nobility paid homage to new kings at Akershus Fortress. Photographer: Hans-Petter Fjeld
Elingård Farm in Østfold was a noble seat farm. The earliest known owner was Olav Torsteinsson (Gyldenhorn) in the 15th century. Photographer: Commons user Arkitekten
Glass paintings of the 17th century at Torsnes Farm in Jondal, Hardanger. Photographer: Elin Galtung Lihaug
Modern-time coronets of rank. Nobles and counts have one variant used on helms and shields and one variant used within shields. Barons' coronet applies to both locations.
Coat of arms, including coronet, supporters, and motto, above the entrance to the family tomb of the Counts of Wedel-Jarlsberg.
Gate to the manor of the Treschow family. It shows the family coat of arms together with coronet and motto.
Canting arms of the Anker family.
The gravestone of Ulvhild Iversdatter to Melau may, among other available sources, illustrate noblewomen's fashion in the late 16th and the early 17th century. Through exclusive clothing and jewelry the nobility demonstrated great wealth, and also in this regard they distinguished themselves from the estate of commoners.
Meløya was the seat of the major noble family of Benkestok. Both the farm and the estate were inherited by non-noble descendants. Photo: Commons user Knut
Descendant of the medieval aristocracy: Carl Martin Ellingsen (1848–1926). Photo: Sophus Körner
Descendant of the modern aristocracy: Bokken Lasson (1871&ndash;1970). Photo: unknown
Ove Jensen Bjelke, Chancellor of Norway, belonged to the old nobility in Denmark and to the new nobility in Norway. Painter: unknown Photographer: Commons user Orland
Barons’ coronet and helm (seven bars).
Counts’ coronet and helm (eleven bars).
Noble coronet on helm and shield.
Coronet of Dukes on helm and shield.
Coronet of Marquesses on helm and shield.
Coronet of counts on helm and shield.
Coronet of barons on helm and shield and within shield.

The modern aristocracy is known as adel (nobility).

Carving believed to depict a 16th-century Scottish laird

Laird

Generic name for the owner of a large, long-established Scottish estate.

Generic name for the owner of a large, long-established Scottish estate.

Carving believed to depict a 16th-century Scottish laird
The Laird, a figurine by Royal Doulton

Although "laird" is sometimes translated as lord and historically signifies the same, like the English term lord of the manor, laird is not a title of nobility.

The House of Lords is the upper legislature of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is filled with members that are selected from the nobility (both hereditary titleholders and those ennobled only for their individual lives).

Fount of honour

The House of Lords is the upper legislature of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is filled with members that are selected from the nobility (both hereditary titleholders and those ennobled only for their individual lives).

The fount of honour (fons honorum) is a person, who, by virtue of his or her official position, has the exclusive right of conferring legitimate titles of nobility and orders of chivalry on other persons.

Negusa Nagast Haile Selassie with other Ethiopian nobles and retainers.

Ethiopian aristocratic and court titles

Negusa Nagast Haile Selassie with other Ethiopian nobles and retainers.
Ras Makonnen Wolde Mikael surrounded by retainers.
Tewodros II of the Ethiopian Empire.
Empress Regnant Zewditu of the Ethiopian Empire.
Empress Consort Taytu Betul of the Ethiopian Empire.
King Haile Selassie of the Solomonic dynasty.
Tewodros II of the Ethiopian Empire.

Until the end of the Ethiopian monarchy in 1974, there were two categories of nobility in Ethiopia and Eritrea.