Nocturnal enuresis

bedwettingbed wettingbed-wettingbed wetterwet the bedbed wetterschronic bed wetterEnuresiswet his bedwetting the bed
Nocturnal enuresis, also called bedwetting, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually begins.wikipedia
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Urinary incontinence

incontinenceurinaryincontinent
Nocturnal enuresis, also called bedwetting, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually begins.
The term enuresis is often used to refer to urinary incontinence primarily in children, such as nocturnal enuresis (bed wetting).

Bedwetting alarm

moisture alarms
Treatments range from behavioral therapy, such as bedwetting alarms, to medication, such as hormone replacement, and even surgery such as urethral dilatation. Bedwetting alarms: Physicians also frequently suggest bedwetting alarms which sound a loud tone when they sense moisture. This can help condition the child to wake at the sensation of a full bladder. These alarms are considered effective, with study participants being 13 times more likely to become dry at night. Alarms are considered to be more effective than Tricyclics and desmopressin at the end of the treatment course. The relapse rate may be reduced by overlearning (train the child with higher level of fluid intake), avoiding penalties. There is still a 29% to 69% relapse rate, however, so the treatment may need to be repeated.
A bedwetting alarm is a behavioral treatment for nocturnal enuresis.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADHDattention deficit disorderhyperactivity
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Children with ADHD are 2.7 times more likely to have bedwetting issues.
People with ADHD have an increased risk of persistent bed wetting.

Diurnal enuresis

daytime incontinencedaytime wetting
Infection/disease Infections and disease are more strongly connected with secondary nocturnal enuresis and with daytime wetting. Less than 5% of all bedwetting cases are caused by infection or disease, the most common of which is a urinary tract infection.
Diurnal enuresis is daytime wetting, nocturnal enuresis is nighttime wetting.

Macdonald triad

an anecdote from his childhoodcriteriahomicidal triad
Bedwetting was part of the Macdonald triad, a set of three behavioral characteristics described by John Macdonald in 1963.
The triad links cruelty to animals, obsession with fire-setting, and persistent bedwetting past a certain age, to violent behaviors, particularly homicidal behavior and sexually predatory behavior.

Desmopressin

desmopressin acetateDDAVPGlypressin
Bedwetting alarms: Physicians also frequently suggest bedwetting alarms which sound a loud tone when they sense moisture. This can help condition the child to wake at the sensation of a full bladder. These alarms are considered effective, with study participants being 13 times more likely to become dry at night. Alarms are considered to be more effective than Tricyclics and desmopressin at the end of the treatment course. The relapse rate may be reduced by overlearning (train the child with higher level of fluid intake), avoiding penalties. There is still a 29% to 69% relapse rate, however, so the treatment may need to be repeated.
Desmopressin, sold under the trade name DDAVP among others, is a medication used to treat diabetes insipidus, bedwetting, hemophilia A, von Willebrand disease, and high blood urea levels.

Imipramine

imapramineimipramine pamoateTofranil
Tricyclic antidepressants: Tricyclic antidepressant prescription drugs with anti-muscarinic properties have been proven successful in treating bedwetting, but also have an increased risk of side effects, including death from overdose. These drugs include amitriptyline, imipramine and nortriptyline. Studies find that patients using these drugs are 4.2 times as likely to stay dry as those taking a placebo. The relapse rates after stopping the medicines are close to 50%.
The drug is also used to treat bedwetting.

Nortriptyline

nortriptyline hydrochloride
Tricyclic antidepressants: Tricyclic antidepressant prescription drugs with anti-muscarinic properties have been proven successful in treating bedwetting, but also have an increased risk of side effects, including death from overdose. These drugs include amitriptyline, imipramine and nortriptyline. Studies find that patients using these drugs are 4.2 times as likely to stay dry as those taking a placebo. The relapse rates after stopping the medicines are close to 50%.
Another licensed use for it is in the treatment of childhood bedwetting.

Tricyclic antidepressant

tricyclic antidepressantsTCAsTCA
Tricyclic antidepressants: Tricyclic antidepressant prescription drugs with anti-muscarinic properties have been proven successful in treating bedwetting, but also have an increased risk of side effects, including death from overdose. These drugs include amitriptyline, imipramine and nortriptyline. Studies find that patients using these drugs are 4.2 times as likely to stay dry as those taking a placebo. The relapse rates after stopping the medicines are close to 50%.
They are also used in the treatment of a number of other medical disorders, including anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SP) also known as social anxiety disorder (SAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, certain personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD), Neurological disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Parkinson's disease as well as chronic pain, neuralgia or neuropathic pain, and fibromyalgia, headache, or migraine, smoking cessation, tourette syndrome, trichotillomania, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), interstitial cystitis (IC), nocturnal enuresis (NE), narcolepsy, insomnia, pathological crying and/or laughing, chronic hiccups, ciguatera poisoning, and as an adjunct in schizophrenia.

Taraxacum

dandeliondandelionsdandelion greens
Dandelions Anecdotal reports and folk wisdom say children who handle dandelions can end up wetting the bed. Dandelions are reputed to be a potent diuretic. English folk names for the plant are "peebeds" and "pissabeds". In French dandelions are called pissenlit, which means "urinate in bed"; likewise "piscialletto", an Italian folkname, and "meacamas" in Spanish.
The English folk name "piss-a-bed" (and indeed the equivalent contemporary French pissenlit) refers to the strong diuretic effect of the plant's roots.

Amitriptyline

amitriptyline hydrochlorideamitryptilineamitryptyline
Tricyclic antidepressants: Tricyclic antidepressant prescription drugs with anti-muscarinic properties have been proven successful in treating bedwetting, but also have an increased risk of side effects, including death from overdose. These drugs include amitriptyline, imipramine and nortriptyline. Studies find that patients using these drugs are 4.2 times as likely to stay dry as those taking a placebo. The relapse rates after stopping the medicines are close to 50%.
It is TGA-labeled in Australia for migraine prevention, also in cases of neuropathic pain disorders, fibromyalgia and nocturnal enuresis.

Diaper

diapersnappynappies
*Absorbent underwear: Absorbent underwear or diapers can reduce embarrassment for bedwetters and make cleanup easier for caregivers.
Diapers are primarily worn by infants, toddlers who are not yet potty trained, and by children who experience bedwetting.

Toilet training

toilet trainedpotty trainingpotty train
Improper toilet training This is another disputed cause of bedwetting. This theory was more widely supported in the last century and is still cited by some authors today. Some say bedwetting can be caused by improper toilet training, either by starting the training when the child is too young or by being too forceful. Recent research has shown more mixed results and a connection to toilet training has not been proven or disproven. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, more child abuse occurs during potty training than in any other developmental stage.
Bedwetting

Nocturnal emission

wet dreamwet dreamsspontaneous ejaculation
Nocturnal emission
Nocturnal enuresis

Sleep

sleepingsleep architectureasleep
Nocturnal enuresis, also called bedwetting, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually begins.

Specific developmental disorder

developmental delaydevelopmental delaysdevelopmentally delayed
Most bedwetting is a developmental delay—not an emotional problem or physical illness.

Family history (medicine)

family historyFamily diseasesgenetic medical history
Bedwetting is commonly associated with a family history of the condition.

Behaviour therapy

behavior therapybehavioral therapybehavioral
Treatments range from behavioral therapy, such as bedwetting alarms, to medication, such as hormone replacement, and even surgery such as urethral dilatation.

Hormone replacement therapy

menopausal hormone therapyhormone therapyestrogen replacement therapy
Treatments range from behavioral therapy, such as bedwetting alarms, to medication, such as hormone replacement, and even surgery such as urethral dilatation.

Urethral sounding

urethral playurethral soundsDittel urethral sound
Treatments range from behavioral therapy, such as bedwetting alarms, to medication, such as hormone replacement, and even surgery such as urethral dilatation.

Self-esteem

self-worthself esteemself-respect
Since most bedwetting is simply a developmental delay, most treatment plans aim to protect or improve self-esteem.

Constipation

constipatedobstipationchronic constipation
Constipation from a poor diet can result in impacted stool in the colon putting undue pressure on the bladder creating loss of bladder control (overflow incontinence).

Overflow incontinence

Constipation from a poor diet can result in impacted stool in the colon putting undue pressure on the bladder creating loss of bladder control (overflow incontinence).

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

DSMDSM-IVDSM-IV-TR
Psychologists may use a definition from the DSM-IV, defining nocturnal enuresis as repeated urination into bed or clothes, occurring twice per week or more for at least three consecutive months in a child of at least 5 years of age and not due to either a drug side effect or a medical condition.

Side effect

side effectsside-effectsside-effect
Psychologists may use a definition from the DSM-IV, defining nocturnal enuresis as repeated urination into bed or clothes, occurring twice per week or more for at least three consecutive months in a child of at least 5 years of age and not due to either a drug side effect or a medical condition.