Non-aggression principle

non-aggressioninitiation of forcenon-aggression axiomZero Aggression Principleanimal rightsethicalForce-initiationinitiate forceinitiating forcemembership certification
The non-aggression principle (NAP), also called the non-aggression axiom, the anti-coercion, zero aggression principle, or non-initiation of force, is an ethical stance asserting that aggression is inherently wrong.wikipedia
183 Related Articles

Aggression

aggressiveaggressivenessaggressive behavior
The non-aggression principle (NAP), also called the non-aggression axiom, the anti-coercion, zero aggression principle, or non-initiation of force, is an ethical stance asserting that aggression is inherently wrong.
Examples are the axiomatic moral view called the non-aggression principle and the political rules governing the behavior of one country toward another.

Anarcho-capitalism

anarcho-capitalistanarcho-capitalistsAnarcho-capitalist literature
It is also a prominent idea in anarcho-capitalism, classical liberalism and minarchism. Anarcho-capitalists usually respond to this argument that this presumed outcome of coercive competition (e.g. PMCs or PDAs that enforce local law) is not likely because of the very high cost, in lives and economically, of war.
This pact would recognize self-ownership, property, contracts, and tort law, in keeping with the universal non-aggression principle (NAP).

Libertarianism

libertarianlibertarianslibertarian state
The NAP is considered by some to be a defining principle of libertarianism.
Some right-libertarians consider the non-aggression principle to be a core part of their beliefs.

Night-watchman state

Minarchismminarchistminimal state
It is also a prominent idea in anarcho-capitalism, classical liberalism and minarchism.
In libertarian political philosophy, a night-watchman state is a model of a state whose only functions are to provide its citizens with the military, the police, and courts, thus protecting them from aggression, theft, breach of contract, fraud, and enforcing property laws; therefore only to act as an enforcer of the non-aggression principle.

Ayn Rand

RandRand, AynRandian
In politics, she condemned the initiation of force as immoral and opposed collectivism and statism as well as anarchism, instead supporting laissez-faire capitalism, which she defined as the system based on recognizing individual rights, including property rights.

Robert Nozick

NozickNozick, RobertNozickian
Most controversially, Nozick argued that a consistent upholding of the non-aggression principle would allow and regard as valid consensual or non-coercive enslavement contracts between adults.

Libertarian perspectives on abortion

Abortioncontentious issue
Libertarian theorist Walter Block follows this line of argument but makes a distinction between evicting the fetus prematurely so that it dies and actively killing it (see Libertarian perspectives on abortion).
Doris Gordon of the group notes that the principles of both the Libertarian Party and Objectivist ethics require some obligation to children and counter with an appeal to the non-aggression principle:

Leonard Peikoff

Peikoff, Leonard
Objectivist philosopher Leonard Peikoff has argued that a fetus has no right to life inside the womb because it is not an "independently existing, biologically formed organism, let alone a person."
Peikoff supports laissez-faire capitalism, arguing that the role of government in society should be limited to minarchist conceptions of protecting individuals from the initiation of force and fraud.

Taxation as theft

opposition to taxation in itselftaxation is theftanti-tax
Proponents of the NAP see taxes as a violation of NAP, while critics of the NAP argue that because of the free-rider problem in case security is a public good, enough funds would not be obtainable by voluntary means to protect individuals from aggression of a greater severity.
Proponents of this position see taxation as a clear violation of the non-aggression principle.

Nonviolence

nonviolentnon-violencenon-violent
Compared to nonviolence, the non-aggression principle does not preclude violence used in self-defense or defense of others.

Natural rights and legal rights

natural rightslegal rightsnatural right
Stephan Kinsella argues that "viewing rights as alienable is perfectly consistent with – indeed, implied by – the libertarian non-aggression principle. Under this principle, only the initiation of force is prohibited; defensive, restitutive, or retaliatory force is not."

Self-ownership

individual sovereigntyindividual autonomyproprietorship
Libertarian philosopher Roderick Long points out that, as natural resources are required not only for the production of goods but for the production of the human body as well, the very concept of self-ownership can only exist if the land itself is privately owned.

Polycentric law

polycentriclocal lawpolycentric legal
Anarcho-capitalists usually respond to this argument that this presumed outcome of coercive competition (e.g. PMCs or PDAs that enforce local law) is not likely because of the very high cost, in lives and economically, of war.
Animated by a vision of peaceful, voluntary cooperation as a social ideal and building on a careful account of non-aggression, the book seeks to explain why the state is illegitimate, dangerous, and unnecessary.

Consequentialist libertarianism

consequentialistConsequentialist libertarianconsequentialist libertarians
Consequentialist libertarian David Friedman, who believes that the NAP should be understood as a relative rather than absolute principle, defends his view by using a Sorites argument.
It is contrasted with deontological libertarianism, also known as "natural-rights libertarianism," which considers the initiation of force and fraud to be immoral, regardless of consequences.

Theft

thiefthievesstealing
Anarcho-capitalists aligned with the Rothbardian philosophy generally contend that the state violates the non-aggression principle by its very nature because, it is argued, governments necessarily use force against those who have not stolen private property, vandalized private property, assaulted anyone, or committed fraud.

Voluntaryism

voluntaryistCarl Watnervoluntarism
Its principal beliefs stem from the principles of self-ownership and non-aggression.

Tax

taxationtaxeslevy
Proponents of the NAP see taxes as a violation of NAP, while critics of the NAP argue that because of the free-rider problem in case security is a public good, enough funds would not be obtainable by voluntary means to protect individuals from aggression of a greater severity.
Voluntaryists, individualist anarchists, Objectivists, anarcho-capitalists, and libertarians see taxation as government aggression (see non-aggression principle).

Self-defense

self-defenceself defenseself defence
Compared to nonviolence, the non-aggression principle does not preclude violence used in self-defense or defense of others.

Nonviolent resistance

passive resistancenon-violent resistancepeaceful protest

Ethics

ethicalmoral philosophyethic
The non-aggression principle (NAP), also called the non-aggression axiom, the anti-coercion, zero aggression principle, or non-initiation of force, is an ethical stance asserting that aggression is inherently wrong.

Pacifism

pacifistpacifistspacifistic
In contrast to pacifism, it does not forbid forceful defense.