Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

gluten sensitivitynon-coeliac gluten sensitivitygluten sensitiveearly signs of celiac diseaseenteropathicgluten intolerancesgluten intolerantgluten-sensitivegluten-sensitive diseasesGluten-sensitive enteropathy
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".wikipedia
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Gluten-related disorders

gluten intolerancegluten-sensitive enteropathygluten sensitivity
NCGS is included in the spectrum of gluten-related disorders.
Gluten-related disorders include celiac disease (CD), non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and wheat allergy.

Wheat

cornTriticumdwarf wheat
There is evidence that not only gliadin (main cytotoxic antigen of gluten), but also other proteins present in gluten and gluten-containing cereals (wheat, rye, barley, and their derivatives) may have a role in the development of symptoms.
In a small part of the general population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, noncoeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, and dermatitis herpetiformis.

Wheat allergy

Wheatallergic to wheatbaker's asthma
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
Gluten sensitivity is not usually classified as a wheat allergy.

Gluten-free diet

gluten-freegluten freegluten free diet
Many people have not been diagnosed following strict criteria and there is a "fad component" to the recent rise in popularity of the gluten-free diet, which leads to debate surrounding the evidence for this condition, its relationship to celiac disease and to irritable bowel syndrome.
Gluten causes health problems for those with gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease (CD), non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH), and wheat allergy.

Gluten

glutinouswheat glutenglutin
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
In a small part of the general human population, gluten can trigger adverse autoimmune reactions responsible for a broad spectrum of gluten-related disorders, including coeliac disease, non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia and dermatitis herpetiformis.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
Gastrointestinal symptoms may include any of the following: abdominal pain, bloating, bowel habit abnormalities (either diarrhea or constipation), nausea, aerophagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and aphthous stomatitis.
These include lactose intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, hyperthyroidism, bile acid diarrhea, and a number of medications.

Constipation

constipatedobstipationchronic constipation
Gastrointestinal symptoms may include any of the following: abdominal pain, bloating, bowel habit abnormalities (either diarrhea or constipation), nausea, aerophagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and aphthous stomatitis.
Underlying associated diseases include hypothyroidism, diabetes, Parkinson's disease, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, colon cancer, diverticulitis, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Bloating

bloatedabdominal bloatinggas
Gastrointestinal symptoms may include any of the following: abdominal pain, bloating, bowel habit abnormalities (either diarrhea or constipation), nausea, aerophagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and aphthous stomatitis.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity

Nausea

nauseousvomitingfeeling of sickness
Gastrointestinal symptoms may include any of the following: abdominal pain, bloating, bowel habit abnormalities (either diarrhea or constipation), nausea, aerophagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and aphthous stomatitis.
Chronic nausea may be the presentation of many gastrointestinal disorders, occasionally as the major symptom, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, peptic ulcer, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Crohn's disease, hepatitis, upper gastrointestinal malignancy, and pancreatic cancer.

Gliadin

There is evidence that not only gliadin (main cytotoxic antigen of gluten), but also other proteins present in gluten and gluten-containing cereals (wheat, rye, barley, and their derivatives) may have a role in the development of symptoms.
Those with WD urticaria and Baker's asthma are sensitive to ω-gliadins.

Irritable bowel syndrome

IBSbowelirritable bowel
Many people have not been diagnosed following strict criteria and there is a "fad component" to the recent rise in popularity of the gluten-free diet, which leads to debate surrounding the evidence for this condition, its relationship to celiac disease and to irritable bowel syndrome.
Some people, managed for years for IBS, may have non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS).

Headache

headacheschronic headacheheadach
These include any of the following: headache, migraine, "foggy mind", fatigue, fibromyalgia, joint and muscle pain, leg or arm numbness, tingling of the extremities, dermatitis (eczema or skin rash), atopic disorders such as asthma, rhinitis, other allergies, depression, anxiety, iron-deficiency anemia, folate deficiency, or autoimmune diseases.
Gastrointestinal disorders may cause headaches, including Helicobacter pylori infection, celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, gastroparesis, and hepatobiliary disorders.

Coeliac disease

celiac diseasecoeliacceliac
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
The alternative diagnosis of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity may be made where there is only symptomatic evidence of gluten sensitivity.

Atopy

atopicatopic disordersatopic diseases
These include any of the following: headache, migraine, "foggy mind", fatigue, fibromyalgia, joint and muscle pain, leg or arm numbness, tingling of the extremities, dermatitis (eczema or skin rash), atopic disorders such as asthma, rhinitis, other allergies, depression, anxiety, iron-deficiency anemia, folate deficiency, or autoimmune diseases.
Atopy may appear associated with an undiagnosed non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

Fibromyalgia

fibrositismuscular rheumatismfibromyalgia syndrome
These include any of the following: headache, migraine, "foggy mind", fatigue, fibromyalgia, joint and muscle pain, leg or arm numbness, tingling of the extremities, dermatitis (eczema or skin rash), atopic disorders such as asthma, rhinitis, other allergies, depression, anxiety, iron-deficiency anemia, folate deficiency, or autoimmune diseases.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) may be an underlying cause of fibromyalgia symptoms but further research is needed.

Schizophrenia

schizophrenicschizophrenicspositive symptoms
NCGS has also been controversially implicated in some neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, eating disorders, autism, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and hallucinations (so-called "gluten psychosis").
It has been hypothesized that in some people, development of schizophrenia is related to intestinal tract dysfunction such as seen with non-celiac gluten sensitivity or abnormalities in the intestinal flora.

Barley

malting barleysix-row barleyH. vulgare
There is evidence that not only gliadin (main cytotoxic antigen of gluten), but also other proteins present in gluten and gluten-containing cereals (wheat, rye, barley, and their derivatives) may have a role in the development of symptoms.
Like wheat, rye, and their hybrids and derivatives, barley contains gluten, which makes it an unsuitable grain for consumption by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy sufferers, among others.

Rye

winter ryerye flourLargest rye producer
There is evidence that not only gliadin (main cytotoxic antigen of gluten), but also other proteins present in gluten and gluten-containing cereals (wheat, rye, barley, and their derivatives) may have a role in the development of symptoms.
Like wheat, barley, and their hybrids and derivatives, rye contains gluten, which makes it an unsuitable grain for consumption by people with gluten-related disorders, such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy, among others.

Dermatitis herpetiformis

Duhring's diseaseskin condition
Autoimmune diseases typically associated with celiac disease are diabetes mellitus type 1, thyroiditis, gluten ataxia, psoriasis, vitiligo, autoimmune hepatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and others.
It is most common in patients of northern European/northern Indian ancestry, and is associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype HLA-DQ2 along with coeliac disease and gluten sensitivity.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
These include any of the following: headache, migraine, "foggy mind", fatigue, fibromyalgia, joint and muscle pain, leg or arm numbness, tingling of the extremities, dermatitis (eczema or skin rash), atopic disorders such as asthma, rhinitis, other allergies, depression, anxiety, iron-deficiency anemia, folate deficiency, or autoimmune diseases.
These disorders include certain endocrine diseases (hypo- and hyperthyroidism, hyperprolactinemia), metabolic disorders (diabetes), deficiency states (low levels of vitamin D, B2, B12, folic acid), gastrointestinal diseases (celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease), heart diseases, blood diseases (anemia), cerebral vascular accidents (transient ischemic attack, stroke), and brain degenerative diseases (Parkinson's disease, dementia, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease), among others.

Eating disorder

eating disorderseatingalimentary disorders
NCGS has also been controversially implicated in some neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, eating disorders, autism, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and hallucinations (so-called "gluten psychosis").
Gastrointestinal diseases, such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, peptic ulcer, eosinophilic esophagitis or non-celiac gluten sensitivity, among others. Celiac disease is also known as the "great imitator", because it may involve several organs and cause an extensive variety of non-gastrointestinal symptoms, such as psychiatric and neurological disorders, including anorexia nervosa.

Gluten challenge test

gluten challengerechallenge
To exclude a placebo effect, a double-blind placebo-controlled gluten challenge is a useful tool, although it is expensive and complicated for routine clinical use, and so is usually performed in research studies.
A recently proposed criteria to non-coeliac gluten sensitivity diagnosis concludes that an improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms and extra-intestinal manifestations higher than 50% with a gluten-free diet (GFD), assessed through a rating scale, may confirm the clinical diagnosis of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity.

Autism

autisticautistic disorderautistic children
NCGS has also been controversially implicated in some neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, eating disorders, autism, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and hallucinations (so-called "gluten psychosis").
In the subset of people who have gluten sensitivity there is limited evidence that suggests that a gluten free diet may improve some autistic behaviors.

Hallucination

hallucinationshallucinatehallucinating
NCGS has also been controversially implicated in some neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, eating disorders, autism, peripheral neuropathy, ataxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and hallucinations (so-called "gluten psychosis").
There is tentative evidence of a relationship with non-celiac gluten sensitivity, the so-called "gluten psychosis".

Anti-gliadin antibodies

AGAanti-gliadin IgGAntibodies to α-gliadin
Evaluating the presence of antigliadin antibodies (AGA) can be a useful complementary diagnostic test.
It is also found in a number of patients who are not enteropathic.