Non-coding RNA

RNAncRNAnon-coding RNAsnoncoding RNARNA genenon-codingfunctional RNAncRNAsuntranslated sequencenon-protein coding
Compare untranslated regions.wikipedia
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Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
The DNA sequence from which a functional non-coding RNA is transcribed is often called an RNA gene.
The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function.

Small interfering RNA

siRNAsiRNAsshort interfering RNA
Abundant and functionally important types of non-coding RNAs include transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), as well as small RNAs such as microRNAs, siRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, snRNAs, exRNAs, scaRNAs and the long ncRNAs such as Xist and HOTAIR.
Small interfering RNA (siRNA), sometimes known as short interfering RNA or silencing RNA, is a class of double-stranded RNA non-coding RNA molecules, 20-25 base pairs in length, similar to miRNA, and operating within the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway.

XIST

XIST geneXist RNAX-inactive specific transcript
Abundant and functionally important types of non-coding RNAs include transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), as well as small RNAs such as microRNAs, siRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, snRNAs, exRNAs, scaRNAs and the long ncRNAs such as Xist and HOTAIR.
Xist (X-inactive specific transcript) is a Non-coding RNA on the X chromosome of the placental mammals that acts as a major effector of the X inactivation process.

Transcriptomics technologies

transcriptomicstranscriptomictranscriptomic technique
The number of non-coding RNAs within the human genome is unknown; however, recent transcriptomic and bioinformatic studies suggest that there are thousands of them.
Here, mRNA serves as a transient intermediary molecule in the information network, whilst non-coding RNAs perform additional diverse functions.

Long non-coding RNA

Long noncoding RNAlncRNAlncRNAs
Abundant and functionally important types of non-coding RNAs include transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), as well as small RNAs such as microRNAs, siRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, snRNAs, exRNAs, scaRNAs and the long ncRNAs such as Xist and HOTAIR.
This somewhat arbitrary limit distinguishes long ncRNAs from small non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and other short RNAs.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.
Like DNA, most biologically active RNAs, including mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, snRNAs, and other non-coding RNAs, contain self-complementary sequences that allow parts of the RNA to fold and pair with itself to form double helices.

MicroRNA

miRNAmicroRNAsmiRNAs
Abundant and functionally important types of non-coding RNAs include transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), as well as small RNAs such as microRNAs, siRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, snRNAs, exRNAs, scaRNAs and the long ncRNAs such as Xist and HOTAIR.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.

Ribosomal RNA

rRNAribosomalrRNAs
Abundant and functionally important types of non-coding RNAs include transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), as well as small RNAs such as microRNAs, siRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, snRNAs, exRNAs, scaRNAs and the long ncRNAs such as Xist and HOTAIR.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is a noncoding type of RNA that acts as the primary building block for ribosomes and the assembly line on which protein synthesis occurs in those ribosomes, essential to all living organisms.

Bioinformatics discovery of non-coding RNAs

discovered by bioinformaticsbioinformatic methods
Recent discoveries of ncRNAs have been achieved through both experimental and bioinformatic methods.
Non-coding RNAs have been discovered using both experimental and bioinformatic approaches.

Extracellular RNA

exRNAsexRNA
Abundant and functionally important types of non-coding RNAs include transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), as well as small RNAs such as microRNAs, siRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, snRNAs, exRNAs, scaRNAs and the long ncRNAs such as Xist and HOTAIR.

U4 spliceosomal RNA

U4U4 snRNA
The ncRNA components of the major spliceosome are U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6.
The U4 small nuclear Ribo-Nucleic Acid (U4 snRNA) is a non-coding RNA component of the major or U2-dependent spliceosome – a eukaryotic molecular machine involved in the splicing of pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA).

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
The DNA sequence from which a functional non-coding RNA is transcribed is often called an RNA gene.
However, some DNA sequences that do not code protein may still encode functional non-coding RNA molecules, which are involved in the regulation of gene expression.

U4atac minor spliceosomal RNA

U4atacU4 atacU4atac snRNA
The ncRNA components of the minor spliceosome are U11, U12, U5, U4atac and U6atac.
U4atac minor spliceosomal RNA is a ncRNA which is an essential component of the minor U12-type spliceosome complex.

U11 spliceosomal RNA

U11U11 snRNA
The ncRNA components of the minor spliceosome are U11, U12, U5, U4atac and U6atac.
The U11 snRNA (small nuclear ribonucleic acid) is an important non-coding RNA in the minor spliceosome protein complex, which activates the alternative splicing mechanism.

U6atac minor spliceosomal RNA

U6atacU6U6 atac snRNPs
The ncRNA components of the minor spliceosome are U11, U12, U5, U4atac and U6atac.
U6atac minor spliceosomal RNA is a non-coding RNA which is an essential component of the minor U12-type spliceosome complex.

Small nucleolar RNA SNORD115

SNORD115HBII-52
In mammals it has been found that snoRNAs can also regulate the alternative splicing of mRNA, for example snoRNA HBII-52 regulates the splicing of serotonin receptor 2C.
SNORD115 (also known as HBII-52) is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecule known as a small nucleolar RNA which usually functions in guiding the modification of other non-coding RNAs.

Y RNA

Y RNAs are stem loops, necessary for DNA replication through interactions with chromatin and initiation proteins (including the origin recognition complex).
Y RNAs are small non-coding RNAs.

Ribonuclease P

RNase PRNase P RNA
The ubiquitous ncRNA, RNase P, is an evolutionary relative of RNase MRP.
It has been shown that human nuclear RNase P is required for the normal and efficient transcription of various small noncoding RNAs, such as tRNA, 5S rRNA, SRP RNA and U6 snRNA genes, which are transcribed by RNA polymerase III, one of three major nuclear RNA polymerases in human cells.

Enhancer RNA

Enhancer RNAsenhancer-derived RNAeRNA
There is increasing evidence that a special type of ncRNAs called enhancer RNAs, transcribed from the enhancer region of a gene, act to promote gene expression.
Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) represent a class of relatively short non-coding RNA molecules (50-2000 nucleotides) transcribed from the DNA sequence of enhancer regions.

U6 spliceosomal RNA

U6U6 snRNA
The ncRNA components of the major spliceosome are U1, U2, U4, U5, and U6.
U6 snRNA is the non-coding small nuclear RNA (snRNA) component of U6 snRNP (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein), an RNA-protein complex that combines with other snRNPs, unmodified pre-mRNA, and various other proteins to assemble a spliceosome, a large RNA-protein molecular complex that catalyzes the excision of introns from pre-mRNA.

List of RNAs

crRNAtypes of non-coding RNAstypes of RNAs
Abundant and functionally important types of non-coding RNAs include transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), as well as small RNAs such as microRNAs, siRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, snRNAs, exRNAs, scaRNAs and the long ncRNAs such as Xist and HOTAIR.

Small Cajal body-specific RNA

scaRNAscaRNAssmall Cajal body-specific RNAs (scaRNAs)
Abundant and functionally important types of non-coding RNAs include transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), as well as small RNAs such as microRNAs, siRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, snRNAs, exRNAs, scaRNAs and the long ncRNAs such as Xist and HOTAIR.
scaRNA1 is a non-coding RNA, which are functional products of genes not translated into proteins.

OxyS RNA

OxyS
Another bacterial ncRNA, OxyS RNA represses translation by binding to Shine-Dalgarno sequences thereby occluding ribosome binding.
OxyS RNA is a small non-coding RNA which is induced in response to oxidative stress in Escherichia coli.

6S / SsrS RNA

6S RNASsrS
The bacterial ncRNA, 6S RNA, specifically associates with RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing the sigma70 specificity factor.
In the field of molecular biology the 6S RNA is a noncoding RNA that was one of the first to be identified and sequenced.

Schizosaccharomyces pombe

S. pombefission yeastS.pombe
RNA polymerase II transcription of ncRNAs is required for chromatin remodelling in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
Its genome, which is approximately 14.1 million base pairs, is estimated to contain 4,970 protein-coding genes and at least 450 non-coding RNAs.