Mural of War (1896), by Gari Melchers
Sewage-treatment-facility - The German language has many compounds
The percentages of men killed in war in eight tribal societies, and Europe and the U.S. in the 20th century. (Lawrence H. Keeley, archeologist)
The Egyptian siege of Dapur in the 13th century BC, from Ramesseum, Thebes.
Japanese samurai attacking a Mongol ship, 13th century
Finnish soldiers during the Winter War.
American tanks moving in formation during the Gulf War.
Soldiers of the Australian 4th Division equipped for chemical warfare in WWI, Ypres sector, 1917
Global deaths in conflicts since the year 1400.
The Apotheosis of War (1871) by Vasily Vereshchagin
The remains of dead Crow Indians killed and scalped by Sioux c. 1874
Les Grandes Misères de la guerre depict the destruction unleashed on civilians during the Thirty Years' War.
Ruins of Warsaw's Napoleon Square in the aftermath of World War II
The Ottoman campaign for territorial expansion in Europe in 1566
Women and priests retrieve the dead bodies of Swabian soldiers just outside the city gates of Constance after the battle of Schwaderloh. (Luzerner Schilling)
Increasing population and constant warfare among the Maya city-states over resources may have contributed to the eventual collapse of the Maya civilization by AD 900.
Kuwaiti oil wells on fire, during the Gulf War, 1 March 1991
U.S. Marine helicopter on patrol in Somalia as part of the Unified Task Force, 1992
Median age by country. War reduces life expectancy. A youth bulge is evident for Africa, and to a lesser extent in some countries in West Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central America.
U.S. soldiers directing artillery on enemy trucks in A Shau Valley, April 1968
U.S. Marines direct a concentration of fire at their opponents, Vietnam, 8 May 1968
Morning after the Battle of Waterloo, by John Heaviside Clark, 1816
In besieged Leningrad. "Hitler ordered that Moscow and Leningrad were to be razed to the ground; their inhabitants were to be annihilated or driven out by starvation. These intentions were part of the 'General Plan East'." – The Oxford Companion to World War II.
Anti-war rally in Washington, D.C., 15 March 2003

Non-combatant is a term of art in the law of war and international humanitarian law to refer to civilians who are not taking a direct part in hostilities; persons, such as combat medics and military chaplains, who are members of the belligerent armed forces but are protected because of their specific duties (as currently described in Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions, adopted in June 1977); combatants who are placed hors de combat; and neutral persons, such as peacekeepers, who are not involved in fighting for one of the belligerents involved in a war.

- Non-combatant

Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties.

- War
Mural of War (1896), by Gari Melchers

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Alpha

Wounded civilians arrive at a hospital in Aleppo during the Syrian civil war, October 2012

Civilian

Civilians under international humanitarian law are "persons who are not members of the armed forces" and are not "combatants if they carry arms openly and respect the laws and customs of war".

Civilians under international humanitarian law are "persons who are not members of the armed forces" and are not "combatants if they carry arms openly and respect the laws and customs of war".

Wounded civilians arrive at a hospital in Aleppo during the Syrian civil war, October 2012

It is slightly different from a non-combatant, as some non-combatants are not civilians (for example, military chaplains attached to the belligerent party or military personnel serving with a neutral country).

The term "non-combatant" now refers to people in general who are not taking part of hostilities in time of war, rather than just civilians.

The First Geneva Convention governing the sick and wounded members of armed forces was signed in 1864.

Law of war

The First Geneva Convention governing the sick and wounded members of armed forces was signed in 1864.
The signing of the First Geneva Convention by some of the major European powers in 1864.
1904 article outlining the basic principles of the law of war, as published in the Tacoma Times.
The emblem of the International Committee of the Red Cross (French: Comité international de la croix-rouge).

The law of war is the component of international law that regulates the conditions for initiating war (jus ad bellum) and the conduct of warring parties (jus in bello).

The impulse to restrict the extent of warfare, and especially protect the lives and property of non-combatants continued with Hugo Grotius and his attempts to write laws of war.