Non-vascular plant

lower plantsnon-vascularnonvascular plantslower plantnon-vascular plantslowernon-vascular flora
Non-vascular plants are plants without a vascular system consisting of xylem and phloem.wikipedia
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Cryptogam

cryptogamscryptogamiccryptogamic plants
These groups are sometimes referred to as "lower plants", referring to their status as the earliest plant groups to evolve, but the usage is imprecise, since both groups are polyphyletic and may be used to include vascular cryptogams, such as the ferns and fern allies that reproduce using spores.
Other names, such as "thallophytes", "lower plants", and "spore plants" are also occasionally used.

Vascular plant

vascular plantshigher plantsvascular
These groups are sometimes referred to as "lower plants", referring to their status as the earliest plant groups to evolve, but the usage is imprecise, since both groups are polyphyletic and may be used to include vascular cryptogams, such as the ferns and fern allies that reproduce using spores.

Marchantiophyta

liverwortliverwortsHepaticae
Mosses and leafy liverworts have structures called phyllids that look like leaves, but are not true leaves because they are single sheets of cells with no internal air spaces, no cuticle or stomata and no xylem or phloem.
The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.

Moss

mossesBryophytaMusci
Mosses and leafy liverworts have structures called phyllids that look like leaves, but are not true leaves because they are single sheets of cells with no internal air spaces, no cuticle or stomata and no xylem or phloem.
Botanically, mosses are non-vascular plants in the land plant division Bryophyta.

Hornwort

Anthocerotophytahornwortsrigid hornwort
Hornworts are a group of non-vascular plants constituting the division Anthocerotophyta.

Algae

algaalgalfilamentous algae
Algae lack the various structures that characterize land plants, such as the phyllids (leaf-like structures) of bryophytes, rhizoids in nonvascular plants, and the roots, leaves, and other organs found in tracheophytes (vascular plants).

Plant

Plantaeplantsflora
Non-vascular plants are plants without a vascular system consisting of xylem and phloem.

Vascular tissue

vascularvascular systemplant tissue
Non-vascular plants are plants without a vascular system consisting of xylem and phloem.

Xylem

cohesion-tension theoryprotoxylemtranspirational pull
Non-vascular plants are plants without a vascular system consisting of xylem and phloem.

Phloem

secondary phloemtranslocationcompanion cell
Non-vascular plants are plants without a vascular system consisting of xylem and phloem.

Water

H 2 OHOliquid water
Although non-vascular plants lack these particular tissues, many possess simpler tissues that are specialized for internal transport of water.

Evolution

evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary
These groups are sometimes referred to as "lower plants", referring to their status as the earliest plant groups to evolve, but the usage is imprecise, since both groups are polyphyletic and may be used to include vascular cryptogams, such as the ferns and fern allies that reproduce using spores.

Polyphyly

polyphyleticdiphyleticpolyphyletic group
These groups are sometimes referred to as "lower plants", referring to their status as the earliest plant groups to evolve, but the usage is imprecise, since both groups are polyphyletic and may be used to include vascular cryptogams, such as the ferns and fern allies that reproduce using spores.

Fern

PolypodiopsidafernsPolypodiophyta
These groups are sometimes referred to as "lower plants", referring to their status as the earliest plant groups to evolve, but the usage is imprecise, since both groups are polyphyletic and may be used to include vascular cryptogams, such as the ferns and fern allies that reproduce using spores.

Pteridophyte

Pteridophytapteridophytesferns
These groups are sometimes referred to as "lower plants", referring to their status as the earliest plant groups to evolve, but the usage is imprecise, since both groups are polyphyletic and may be used to include vascular cryptogams, such as the ferns and fern allies that reproduce using spores.

Prokaryote

prokaryoticprokaryotesprokaryotic cells
Non-vascular plants are often among the first species to move into new and inhospitable territories, along with prokaryotes and protists, and thus function as pioneer species.

Protist

ProtistaprotistsProtoctista
Non-vascular plants are often among the first species to move into new and inhospitable territories, along with prokaryotes and protists, and thus function as pioneer species.

Pioneer species

pioneer plantpioneerpioneering species
Non-vascular plants are often among the first species to move into new and inhospitable territories, along with prokaryotes and protists, and thus function as pioneer species.

Glossary of botanical terms

glabrouscoriaceousmidrib
Mosses and leafy liverworts have structures called phyllids that look like leaves, but are not true leaves because they are single sheets of cells with no internal air spaces, no cuticle or stomata and no xylem or phloem.

Leaf

leavesaxilfoliage
Mosses and leafy liverworts have structures called phyllids that look like leaves, but are not true leaves because they are single sheets of cells with no internal air spaces, no cuticle or stomata and no xylem or phloem.

Plant cuticle

cuticlecuticlescuticular
Mosses and leafy liverworts have structures called phyllids that look like leaves, but are not true leaves because they are single sheets of cells with no internal air spaces, no cuticle or stomata and no xylem or phloem.

Stoma

stomatastomatalpores
Mosses and leafy liverworts have structures called phyllids that look like leaves, but are not true leaves because they are single sheets of cells with no internal air spaces, no cuticle or stomata and no xylem or phloem.

Poikilohydry

poikilohydricPoikilohydric plantspoikylohydrous
Consequently, phyllids are unable to control the rate of water loss from their tissues and are said to be poikilohydric.

Marchantia

Some liverworts, such as Marchantia have a cuticle and the sporophytes of mosses have both cuticles and stomata, which were important in the evolution of land plants.

Embryophyte

land plantsland plantEmbryophyta
All land plants have a life cycle with an alternation of generations between a diploid sporophyte and a haploid gametophyte, but in all non-vascular land plants the gametophyte generation is dominant.