Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines

LEOPARD syndromeMoynahan syndromeMultiple lentigines syndromeprogressive cardiomyopathic lentiginosis
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) which is part of a group called Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, is a rare autosomal dominant, multisystem disease caused by a mutation in the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 gene (PTPN11).wikipedia
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PTPN11

SHP-2SHP2PTPN11/Shp2
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) which is part of a group called Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, is a rare autosomal dominant, multisystem disease caused by a mutation in the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 gene (PTPN11).
Missense mutations in the PTPN11 locus are associated with both Noonan syndrome and Leopard syndrome.

Protein tyrosine phosphatase

tyrosine phosphataseprotein tyrosine phosphatasesPTP
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) which is part of a group called Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, is a rare autosomal dominant, multisystem disease caused by a mutation in the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 gene (PTPN11).
LEOPARD syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and Metachondromatosis are associated with PTPN11.

Lentigo

lentiginesHutchinson's melanotic freckleareas of more-pigmented skin
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines is caused by a different missense mutation of the same gene. Zeisler and Becker first described a syndrome with multiple lentigines, hypertelorism, pectus carinatum (protruding breastbone) and prognathism (protrusion of lower jaw) in 1936. A clinical diagnosis is considered made when, with lentigines present there are 2 other symptoms observed, such as ECG abnormalities and ocular hypertelorism, or without lentigines, 3 of the above conditions are present, with a first-degree relative (i.e. parent, child, sibling) with a clinical diagnosis.

Hypertelorism

ocular hypertelorismIncreased distance between the eyesorbital hypertelorism
Zeisler and Becker first described a syndrome with multiple lentigines, hypertelorism, pectus carinatum (protruding breastbone) and prognathism (protrusion of lower jaw) in 1936.
Hypertelorism can also be seen in Apert syndrome, craniofrontonasal dysplasia, Noonan syndrome, neurofibromatosis, LEOPARD syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome, Andersen–Tawil syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome and cri du chat syndrome, along with piebaldism, prominent inner third of the eyebrows, irises of different color, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, mucopolysaccharide metabolism disorders (Morquio syndrome and Hurler's syndrome), deafness and also in hypothyroidism.

Interdigital webbing

interdigital webswebbedwebbing
In humans, it can be found in those suffering from LEOPARD syndrome and from Aarskog–Scott syndrome.

Pectus carinatum

protrudingprotruding sternumprotrusion
Zeisler and Becker first described a syndrome with multiple lentigines, hypertelorism, pectus carinatum (protruding breastbone) and prognathism (protrusion of lower jaw) in 1936.
However, the condition may be present in association with other syndromes: Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Morquio syndrome, trisomy 18, trisomy 21, homocystinuria, osteogenesis imperfecta, multiple lentigines syndrome (LEOPARD syndrome), Sly syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VII), and scoliosis.

Ras GTPase

RasRas subfamilyRas protein
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) which is part of a group called Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, is a rare autosomal dominant, multisystem disease caused by a mutation in the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 gene (PTPN11).

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MAPKMAP kinasemitogen-activated protein kinases
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) which is part of a group called Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, is a rare autosomal dominant, multisystem disease caused by a mutation in the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 gene (PTPN11).

Dominance (genetics)

autosomal recessiverecessiveautosomal dominant
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) which is part of a group called Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, is a rare autosomal dominant, multisystem disease caused by a mutation in the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 gene (PTPN11).

Mutation

mutationsgenetic mutationmutated
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) which is part of a group called Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, is a rare autosomal dominant, multisystem disease caused by a mutation in the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 gene (PTPN11).

Missense mutation

missensemissense mutationsmissense substitution
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines is caused by a different missense mutation of the same gene.

Noonan syndrome

Noonan's syndromeNoonan
Noonan syndrome is fairly common (1:1,000 to 1:2,500 live births), and neurofibromatosis 1 (which was once thought to be related to NSML) is also common (1:3500); however, no epidemiological data exists for NSML.

Neurofibromatosis type I

neurofibromatosis type 1neurofibromatosis 1Von Recklinghausen's disease
Noonan syndrome is fairly common (1:1,000 to 1:2,500 live births), and neurofibromatosis 1 (which was once thought to be related to NSML) is also common (1:3500); however, no epidemiological data exists for NSML.

Epidemiology

epidemiologistepidemiologicalepidemiologists
Noonan syndrome is fairly common (1:1,000 to 1:2,500 live births), and neurofibromatosis 1 (which was once thought to be related to NSML) is also common (1:3500); however, no epidemiological data exists for NSML.

Hallmark

Hallmarks925 silverbuilder's mark
The presence of all of these hallmarks is not needed for a diagnosis.

Diagnosis

diagnosticdiagnosticsdiagnose
A clinical diagnosis is considered made when, with lentigines present there are 2 other symptoms observed, such as ECG abnormalities and ocular hypertelorism, or without lentigines, 3 of the above conditions are present, with a first-degree relative (i.e. parent, child, sibling) with a clinical diagnosis.

Lesion