A report on Sweden and Nordic countries

Nordic flags
A Vendel-era helmet, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities
Effigy of Queen Margaret, founder and ruler of the Kalmar Union
Viking expeditions (blue lines)
Kalmar Union, c. 1400
The Tjängvide image stone dating from 800 to 1099, example of Viking art
Nordic prime ministers at the Nordic Council meeting in 2014 in Stockholm
Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), a site of religious and political importance in the early days of Sweden
Satellite map of the European part of the Nordic countries, except for Jan Mayen and Svalbard
Skog tapestry, made most probably during the late 13th century.
The Öresund Bridge between Malmö in Sweden and Copenhagen in Denmark
Gustav I liberated Sweden from Christian II of Denmark, ending the Kalmar Union. He established the House of Vasa which ruled Sweden and Poland until the 17th century
Share of total area in the Nordic countries in 2012
Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631.
The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark
The Swedish Empire between 1611 and 1815, with its absolute peak between 1658 and 1660.
Average temperatures in the capitals of the Nordic countries in 2012
The Battle of Poltava in 1709. In the following years, Russia and her allies occupied all Swedish dominions on the Baltic coast and even Finland.
Signing the Helsinki Treaty in 1962
Illustration of starvation in northern Sweden, Famine of 1867–1869
Nordic Council in session at the Parliament of Norway in 2007
Swedish emigrants boarding ship in Gothenburg in 1905
Vigdís Finnbogadóttir served as the fourth President of Iceland from 1980 to 1996 and was the world's first democratically elected female head of state
A Swedish soldier during World War II. Sweden remained neutral during the conflict.
Copenhagen Central Station with S-Trains
Tage Erlander (left), Prime Minister under the ruling Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1946 to 1969.
GDP per capita of the Nordic sovereign states in USD from 1990 to 2017
Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Statfjord oil platform in Norway is owned and operated by Equinor, which is the largest company in the Nordic countries
Second day of the Stockholm Husby riots. The picture shows three cars on fire in the Stockholm suburb of Husby, 20 May 2013
The Port of Gothenburg is the largest port in the Nordic countries.
View of the Stora Sjöfallet National Park
During the recent years, Denmark has invested heavily in windfarms
Scania in southern Sweden
Population density map of the Nordic countries (1996)
Sandhamn island, Stockholm archipelago
Historical reenactment of a farmer wedding in Jomala, Åland
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the 0°C isotherm
Sami man at Honningsvåg, Norway, wearing the traditional Gákti
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the -3°C isotherm
Faroese folk dancers in national costumes
Map of Sweden's five major vegetation zones
ABBA is one of the best-selling music artists of all time
The current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, and his consort, Queen Silvia
Søren Kierkegaard is considered to be the first existentialist philosopher
Rosenbad, in central Stockholm, has been the seat of the Government since 1981.
Swedish author Astrid Lindgren together with Finnish author Tove Jansson in Stockholm in 1958
The Riksdag chamber, at the time of a vote, in 2009
Flag of Åland
The party leaders lined up before the start of the televised live debate on 12 September 2014.
Nordic countries (orange and red) and Scandinavian countries (red)
Municipal divisions of Sweden
The Barents Region
Kingdoms of Svear (Sweonas) and Götar (Geats) in the 12th century, with modern borders in grey
A satellite photograph of Northern Europe
The Riksdag, the Swedish Parliament in 2014
Bonde Palace in Stockholm, seat of the Supreme Court of Sweden
The EU parliament in Brussels. Sweden is a member state of the European Union.
Development aid measured in GNI in 2009. Source: OECD. As a percentage Sweden is the largest donor.
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen is an advanced Swedish multi-role fighter aircraft of the Swedish Air Force.
The Infantry fighting vehicle CV90, which is produced and used by Sweden
Gross regional product (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2014)
A proportional representation of Sweden exports, 2019
Sweden is home to Volvo Cars, an automobile company with its headquarters in Gothenburg
Real GDP growth in Sweden, 1996–2006
Sweden is part of the Schengen Area and the EU single market.
Nordstan is one of the largest shopping malls in northern Europe
Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, located south of Gothenburg
The Öresund Bridge between Malmö and Copenhagen in Denmark
Stockholm Central Station
Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and institutor of the Nobel Prize
Population density in the counties of Sweden.
Distribution of speakers of the Swedish language
The Protestant Katarina Church in Stockholm
The second oldest mosque in Sweden is the Malmö Mosque, inaugurated in 1984
Historical development of life expectancy in Sweden
The North Germanic languages in the Nordic countries
Uppsala University (established 1477)
The Finnic languages in Northern Europe
Nationalmuseum in Stockholm
The Sami languages in Northern Europe
The Swedish band ABBA in April 1974, a few days after they won the Eurovision Song Contest
Share of total population of the Nordic countries by country in January 2013
Life expectancy at birth in the Nordic countries in 2012
Kalmar Cathedral
Marriages and divorces in the Nordic countries in 2012
Headquarters of Sveriges Television in Stockholm
Immigrants in the Nordic countries in 2012
The writer and playwright August Strindberg
{{flagicon|DEN}} Vilhelm Hammershøi
Walpurgis Night bonfire in Sweden
{{flagicon|FIN}} Helene Schjerfbeck
Cinnamon rolls originated in Sweden and Denmark.
{{flagicon|ISL}} Þórarinn B. Þorláksson
Former World No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg
{{flagicon|NOR}} Edvard Munch
Former world No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg
{{flagicon|SWE}} August Strindberg
{{flagicon|FAR}} Díðrikur á Skarvanesi
Vote percentage over time of the main social democratic parties in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway.
Labour Party (Norway)
Swedish Social Democratic Party 
Social Democrats (Denmark)
Social Democratic Party of Finland

It includes the sovereign states of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden; the autonomous territories of the Faroe Islands and Greenland; and the autonomous region of Åland.

- Nordic countries

At 450295 km2, Sweden is the largest Nordic country, the third-largest country in the European Union, and the fifth-largest country in Europe.

- Sweden

17 related topics with Alpha



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Finland on a medieval map, which is part of the Carta marina (1539)
Reconstruction of Stone Age dwelling from Kierikki, Oulu
Stone Age bear head gavel found in Paltamo, Kainuu.
An ancient Finnish man's outfit according to the findings of the Tuukkala Cemetery in Mikkeli, interpretation of 1889. The cemetery dates from the late 13th century to the early 15th century.
Late Iron Age swords found in Finland
The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658.
Dark green: Sweden proper, as represented in the Riksdag of the Estates. Other greens: Swedish dominions and possessions
Now lying within Helsinki, Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of an inhabited 18th-century sea fortress built on six islands. It is one of Finland's most popular tourist attractions.
Pioneers in Karelia (1900) by Pekka Halonen
White firing squad executing Red soldiers after the Battle of Länkipohja (1918)
Finnish military leader and statesman C. G. E. Mannerheim as general officer leading the White Victory Parade at the end of the Finnish Civil War in Helsinki, 1918
J. K. Paasikivi and P. E. Svinhufvud, both at the time future presidents of the Republic of Finland, discuss the Finnish monarchy project in 1918.
Finnish troops raise a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the World War II in Finland
Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after World War II. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956.
Urho Kekkonen, the eighth president of Finland (1956–1982)
Finland joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Topographic map of Finland
There are some 187,888 lakes in Finland larger than 500 square metres and 75,818 islands of over 0,5 km2 area, leading to the denomination "the land of a thousand lakes". Picture of Lake Pielinen in North Karelia.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland's national animal. It is also the largest carnivore in Finland.
Köppen climate classification types of Finland
The Parliament of Finland's main building along Mannerheimintie in Töölö, Helsinki
The Session Hall of the Parliament of Finland
The Court House of the Supreme Court
Martti Ahtisaari receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 2008
Finnish Leopard 2A4 tank Ps 273–106 in a combat demonstration at Comprehensive security exhibition 2015 in Tampere.
Sisu Nasu NA-110 tracked transport vehicle of the Finnish Army. Most conscripts receive training for warfare in winter, and transport vehicles such as this give mobility in heavy snow.
People gathering at the Senate Square, Helsinki, right before the 2011 Helsinki Pride parade started.
Angry Birds Land, a theme park in the Särkänniemi amusement park, in Tampere, Pirkanmaa; the mobile phone game Angry Birds, developed in Finland, has become a commercial hit both domestically and internationally.
A treemap representing the exports of Finland in 2017
The two existing units of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. On the far left is a visualization of a third unit, which, when completed, will become Finland's fifth commercial nuclear reactor.
Supply of electricity in Finland
The Oasis of the Seas was built at the Perno shipyard in Turku.
Flags of the Nordic countries from left to right: Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
Medieval old town in Porvoo is one of the most popular tourist destinations in summers for those who are fascinated by the old look.
The historical Tavastia Castle (or Häme Castle) in Hämeenlinna, Tavastia Proper is located close to the Lake Vanajavesi.
Municipalities of Finland:
The Evangelical Lutheran Helsinki Cathedral
The Meilahti Tower Hospital, part of the Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH) in Töölö, Helsinki
Development of life expectancy in Finland
Helsinki Central Library Oodi was chosen as the best new public library in the world in 2019
Pupils at the school of Torvinen in Sodankylä, Finland, in the 1920s
Auditorium in Aalto University's main building, designed by Alvar Aalto
The library of the University of Eastern Finland in Snellmania, the Kuopio campus of the university
The sauna is strongly associated with Finnish culture
A smoke sauna in Ruka, Kuusamo
Mikael Agricola (1510–1557), Bishop of Turku, a prominent Lutheran Protestant reformer and the father of the Finnish written language
Akseli Gallen-Kallela, The Defense of the Sampo, 1896, Turku Art Museum
The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957) was a significant figure in the history of classical music.
Perttu Kivilaakso of Apocalyptica
The Finnish filmmakers Edvin Laine and Matti Kassila in 1955
Linus Torvalds, the Finnish software engineer best known for creating the popular open-source kernel Linux
Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice. Butter, often mixed with boiled egg (egg butter or munavoi), is spread over the hot pastries before eating.
Paavo Nurmi lights the 1952 Summer Olympics flame
Finland's men's national ice hockey team is ranked as one of the best in the world. The team has won four world championships (1995, 2011, 2019 and 2022) and one Olympic gold medal (2022)
Kankkunen on the Laajavuori stage of the 2010 Rally Finland

Finland (Suomi ; Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (Suomen tasavalta; Republiken Finland ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe.

It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland across Estonia to the south.


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Country in Northern Europe.

Country in Northern Europe.

Bronze Age stone-cist graves
Iron Age artefacts of a hoard from Kumna
Independent counties of Ancient Estonia in the beginning of the 13th century
Medieval Estonia and Livonia after the crusade
Kuressaare Castle in Saaremaa dates back to the 1380s
"Academia Dorpatensis" (now University of Tartu) was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus as the second university in the kingdom of Sweden. After the king's death it became known as "Academia Gustaviana".
Carl Robert Jakobson played a key role in the Estonian national awakening.
Declaration of Independence in Pärnu on 23 February 1918. One of the first images of the Republic.
Estonian armoured train during the Estonian War of Independence
According to the 23 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact "the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)" were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
The Red Army troops crossing Soviet-Estonian border in October 1939 after Estonia had been forced to sign the Bases Treaty
The capital Tallinn after bombing by the Soviet Air Force during the war on the Eastern Front in March 1944
Estonian Swedes fleeing the Soviet occupation to Sweden (1944)
The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised again on the top of the Pikk Hermann tower on February 24, 1989.
Baltic Way in Estonia
The barn swallow (H. r. rustica) is the national bird of Estonia.
Estonia Endla Nature Reserve 07 Forest
Haanja Nature reserve where violations of Natura 2000 area logging is taking place.
The seat of the Parliament of Estonia in Toompea Castle
Building of the Supreme Court of Estonia in Tartu
US President Barack Obama giving a speech at the Nordea Concert Hall in Tallinn
Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Riga, 2016
Estonian soldiers during a NATO exercise in 2015
KAPO (Kaitsepolitsei) headquarters in Kassisaba, Kesklinn, Tallinn
An Estonian Patria Pasi XA-180 in Afghanistan
Administrative divisions of Estonia
A proportional representation of Estonia exports, 2019
The central business district of Tallinn
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Estonia's GDP growth from 2000 till 2012
The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world. In 2012, oil shale supplied 70% of Estonia's total primary energy and accounted for 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.
Rõuste wind farm in Lääneranna Parish
Graphical depiction of Estonia's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories
Population of Estonia 1960–2019. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration.
Estonian folk dancers
A Russian Old Believer village with a church on Piirissaar island
Ruhnu stave church, built in 1644, is the oldest surviving wooden building in Estonia
Distribution of Finnic languages in Northern Europe
The University of Tartu is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the highest-ranked university in Estonia. According to the Top Universities website, the University of Tartu ranks 285th in the QS Global World Ranking.
Building of the Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. It is considered to be the first example of Estonian national architecture. The Treaty of Tartu between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed in the building in 1920.
ESTCube-1 is the first Estonian satellite.
The Estonian National Museum in Tartu.
The Estonian Song Festival is UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer from 2010 to 2018.
Jaan Kross is the most translated Estonian writer.
A traditional farmhouse built in the Estonian vernacular style
Mulgipuder, a national dish of Estonia made with potatoes, groats, and meat. It is very traditional food in the southern part of Estonia.
Tartu Ski Marathon in 2006

It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia.

Since the early 1990s, Estonia has been involved in active trilateral Baltic states co-operation with Latvia and Lithuania, and Nordic-Baltic co-operation with the Nordic countries.


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The gilded side of the Trundholm sun chariot dating from the Nordic Bronze Age
The Ladby ship, the largest ship burial found in Denmark.
Larger of the two Jelling stones, raised by Harald Bluetooth
Extent of the Dano-Norwegian Realm. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland.
The Assault on Copenhagen on 11 February 1659 during the Second Northern War. Danish defenders under King Frederick III successfully repelled the forces of the Swedish Empire. Painting by Frederik Christian Lund.
The National Constitutional Assembly was convened by King Frederick VII in 1848 to adopt the Constitution of Denmark.
Denmark became a member of the European Union in 1973 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
A satellite image of Jutland and the Danish islands
A map showing major urban areas, islands and connecting bridges
Bay of Aarhus viewed from southern Djursland
Beech trees are common throughout Denmark, especially in the sparse woodlands.
The European Environment Agency in Copenhagen
Christiansborg Palace houses the Folketing, the Supreme Court, and government offices.
King Christian V presiding over the Supreme Court in 1697.
The village of Kunoy on Kunoy island, in the Faroe Islands. Kalsoy island is at right.
Danish prime minister Mette Frederiksen (second from left) with foreign counterparts at the Nordic Council in Copenhagen, 2021
Danish MP-soldiers conducting advanced law enforcement training
A proportional representation of Denmark exports, 2019
Lego bricks are produced by The Lego Group, headquartered in Billund.
Denmark is a major producer and exporter of pork products.
With an investment of 8.5 million euros over the ten-year construction period, Denmark confirms participation in E-ELT.
Middelgrunden, an offshore wind farm near Copenhagen
Denmark railway network
Copenhagen Airport is the largest airport in Scandinavia and the 15th-busiest in Europe.
Roskilde Cathedral has been the burial place of Danish royalty since the 15th century. In 1995 it became a World Heritage Site.
The oldest surviving Danish lecture plan dated 1537 from the University of Copenhagen
Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen
Mjølnerparken in Copenhagen
Statue of philosopher Søren Kierkegaard
Director Lars von Trier, who co-created the Dogme film movement
Grundtvig's Church in Copenhagen, an example of expressionist architecture
A portrait of Hans Christian Andersen (1836), by Christian Albrecht Jensen
Woman in Front of a Mirror, (1841), by Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg
Smørrebrød, a variety of Danish open sandwiches piled high with delicacies
Michael Laudrup, named the best Danish football player of all time by the Danish Football Union

Denmark (Danmark, ) is a Nordic country in Northern Europe.

European Denmark is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, lying southwest of Sweden, south of Norway, and north of Germany.

Flags of the Nordic countries from left to right: Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark

Nordic model

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Flags of the Nordic countries from left to right: Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
Vote percentage over time of the main social democratic parties in Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway 
Labour Party (Norway)
Swedish Social Democratic Party 
Social Democrats (Denmark)
Social Democratic Party of Finland

The Nordic model comprises the economic and social policies as well as typical cultural practices common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).

A composed satellite photograph of islands and continental areas in and surrounding the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

Northern Europe

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The northern region of Europe has several definitions.

The northern region of Europe has several definitions.

A composed satellite photograph of islands and continental areas in and surrounding the North Sea and Baltic Sea.
European climate. The Köppen climate classification map is presented by the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia and the Global Precipitation Climatology Center of the Deutscher Wetterdienst.
Northern Europe, as defined by the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions
Map of Europe showing the largest religions by region. Eastern Christianity is represented in blue, Islam in green, and the other colors represent branches of Western Christianity.
A composed satellite photograph of islands and continental areas in and surrounding the North Sea and Baltic Sea.
Subregions of Europe by United Nations geoscheme.
 Eastern Europe
Northern Europe
Southern Europe
Western Europe
European sub-regions according to EuroVoc:
 Northern Europe
Western Europe
Southern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
Regions of Europe based on CIA World Factbook:
 Northern Europe
Western Europe
Central Europe
Southwest Europe
Southern Europe
Southeast Europe
Eastern Europe

There are various definitions of Northern Europe which often include the British Isles, the Nordic countries and the Baltic states and sometimes Greenland, northern Germany, northern Belarus and northwest Russia.


The Baltic Way was a mass anti-Soviet demonstration in 1989 where ca 25% of the total population of the Baltic countries participated

Baltic states

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Modern unofficial geopolitical term, typically used to group three countries: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

Modern unofficial geopolitical term, typically used to group three countries: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

The Baltic Way was a mass anti-Soviet demonstration in 1989 where ca 25% of the total population of the Baltic countries participated
An armoured train used in the Estonian War of Independence against Soviet Russia, 1919
According to the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact "the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)" were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
Geopolitical status in Northern Europe in November 1939
Baltic Assembly session in Seimas Palace, in Vilnius, Lithuania
Baltic Defence College serves as a centre of strategic and operational research and provides professional military education to intermediate- and senior-level officers and government officials
Downtown Tallinn
Downtown Riga
Downtown Vilnius
St. Olaf's church in Tallinn, Estonia
St. Peter's Lutheran Church, Riga, Latvia
Catholic Church of St. Johns, Vilnius, Lithuania
Forests cover over half the landmass of Estonia
Devonian sandstone cliffs in Gauja National Park, Latvia's largest and oldest national park
Jägala waterfall in Estonia is the highest in the Baltics
Gastilionys cliffs in Kauno Marios Regional Park near Kaunas
View from the Bilioniai forthill in Lithuania
Sand dunes of the Curonian Spit near Nida, which are the highest drifting sand dunes in Europe (UNESCO World Heritage Site).<ref>{{cite web |title=Nida and The Curonian Spit, The Insider's Guide to Visiting |url=https://maptrotting.com/nida-guide-baltic-coast/ |website=MapTrotting |access-date=3 January 2019 |date=23 September 2016}}</ref>
Language branches in Northern Europe
North Germanic (Faroe Islands, Iceland and Scandinavia)
Finnic (Finland, Estonia)
Baltic (Latvia, Lithuania)

Since the Middle Ages, the Baltic Sea has appeared on maps in Germanic languages as the equivalent of 'East Sea': Ostsee, Østersøen, Oostzee, Östersjön, etc. Indeed, the Baltic Sea lies mostly to the east of Germany, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

The term includes Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, and originally also included Finland, which later became grouped among the Nordic countries.

Finnish soldiers at the VT-line of fortifications during the Soviet Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive in June 1944

Continuation War

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Conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union from 1941 to 1944, as part of World War II.

Conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union from 1941 to 1944, as part of World War II.

Finnish soldiers at the VT-line of fortifications during the Soviet Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive in June 1944
Finnish flags at half-mast in Helsinki on 13 March 1940 after the Moscow Peace Treaty became public
Vasilievsky Island in Saint Petersburg, pictured in 2017. During the Winter and Continuation Wars, Leningrad, as it was then known, was of strategic importance to both sides.
The geopolitical status in Europe in May 1941:Note how Finland is marked as a German ally.
Joachim von Ribbentrop (right) bidding farewell to Vyacheslav Molotov in Berlin on 14 November 1940 after discussing Finland's coming fate
Finnish, German and Soviet military formations at the start of the Continuation War in June and July 1941
A Bristol Blenheim bomber-aircraft belonging to the Finnish Air Force in March, 1944.
Finnish soldiers crossing the Murmansk railway in 1941
President Risto Ryti giving his famous radio speech about the Continuation War on June 26, 1941.
Subphases of the Finnish invasion of Karelia during the 1941 general offensive. The old 1939 border is marked in grey.
A Finnish military parade next to the Round Tower in Viipuri (now Vyborg, Russia) on 31 August 1941, celebrating its recapture
A Finnish soldier with a reindeer in Lapland. Reindeer were used in many capacities, such as pulling supply sleighs in snowy conditions.
Finnish soldiers crossing the 1940-agreed border (Moscow Peace Treaty) at Tohmajärvi on 12 July 1941, two days after the invasion started
A Soviet prisoner-of-war and a puppy pictured in August 1941 at Lupasalmi (Лубосалма) in Karelia
Finnish soldiers searching for remains of eventual victims at a burned-down house after a Soviet partisan attack on the village of Viianki, in Suomussalmi. The burnt bodies of over ten civilians, including women and children, were found.
The Soviets conducted four attacks in the first half of 1942, all of which were repelled by Finnish and German troops.
Keitel (left), Hitler, Mannerheim and Ryti meeting at Immola Airfield on 4 June 1942. Hitler made a surprise visit in honour of Mannerheim's 75th birthday and to discuss plans.
Soviet women having breakfast next to burning trash at a Finnish concentration camp in Petrozavodsk
Administrative map of Finland and occupied territories 1942–1944
Finnish soldiers in front of a field synagogue
Bombing destruction in Helsinki, the night of 6–7 February 1944.
Finnish soldiers carrying Panzerfäuste on their shoulders pass by the remains of a destroyed Soviet T-34 tank at the Battle of Tali-Ihantala
The front lines on 4 September 1944, when the ceasefire came into effect and two weeks before the war concluded
A Soviet (left) and a Finnish officer compare their watches on 4 September 1944 at Vyborg.
Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union following the Moscow Armistice displayed in red
A memorial close to the Svir River in Russia with "The enemy was stopped here" ("Здесь был остановлен враг") written on it
A memorial stone in Utajärvi, Finland.

Prior to the war, Finnish foreign policy had been based on multilateral guarantees of support from the League of Nations and Nordic countries, but this policy was considered a failure.

Finland sought security against further territorial depredations by the USSR and proposed mutual defence agreements with Norway and Sweden, but these initiatives were quashed by Moscow.



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Intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two North American.

Intergovernmental military alliance between 30 member states – 28 European and two North American.

West Germany joined NATO in 1955, which led to the formation of the rival Warsaw Pact during the Cold War.
The Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 marked a turning point in NATO's role in Europe, and a section of the wall is now displayed outside NATO Headquarters.
NATO planes engaging in aerial bombardments during Operation Deliberate Force after the Srebrenica massacre
German KFOR soldiers on patrol in southern Kosovo in 1999
KFOR-MSU Carabinieri Patrols in front of the Ibar Bridge in Mitrovica, Kosovo, 2019
The September 11 attacks in the United States caused NATO to invoke its collective defence article for the first time.
General Austin S. Miller (right) became commander of U.S. and NATO forces in Afghanistan in September 2018 and oversaw the withdrawal until July 2021.
USS Farragut (DDG-99) destroying a Somali pirate skiff in March 2010
Libyan Army Palmaria howitzers destroyed by the French Air Force near Benghazi in March 2011
Partnership for Peace conducts multinational military exercises like Cooperative Archer, which took place in Tbilisi in July 2007 with 500 servicemen from four NATO members, eight PfP members, and Jordan, a Mediterranean Dialogue participant.
The North Atlantic Council convening in 2010 with a defence/foreign minister configuration
Protestors at a February 2022 rally against Russia's invasion of Ukraine march past the statue of Tsar Alexander II in Senate Square in Helsinki

NATO currently has three candidate countries that are in the process of joining the alliance: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Finland, and Sweden.

The addition of the two Nordic countries would significantly expand NATO's capabilities in the Arctic, Nordic, and Baltic regions.


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The two counties of Scania from 1719 to 1996
Letter from Eric of Pomerania dated 1437, with a description of the arms granted to the city of Malmö.
The coat of arms of Scania in an engraving from 1712 in Erik Dahlbergh's Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna.
Ale's Stones, a stone ship (burial monument) from c. 500 AD on the coast at Kåseberga, around ten kilometres (10 km) south east of Ystad.
Map of Denmark in the Middle Ages, Scania was together with the provinces Blekinge and Halland a part of Denmark
Front page of the latest and current peace treaty between Denmark and Sweden, Swedish version
The motorway through western Scania, E6, here at motorway service Glumslöv, is the artery of the western part of the province.
All local, regional and inter-regional train services within Scania (2018). In all, 72 stations are served, during day times at least one train per hour and direction. Many stations (especially in the west) have far better service than so. The most busy part is between Hyllie (Malmö) and Lund.
Land usage in Scania, showing hardwood forests (light green), pinewood forests (dark green), fields (yellow), garden and fruit (orange) and residential areas (red)
Aerial view of Scania near Lund
A typical Beech forest, the Western edge of Karlslund in Northern Landskrona
Pruned willows and rapefields are typical for this area of Sweden.
Typical Scanian coastline, here southern peak of Ven island in Øresund. The yellow colour indicates sand rather than chalk, while white colour at similar cliffs indicates chalk rather than sand
Map of the 33 municipalities of Scania. The western, yellow coloured municipalities, close to Øresund, have much higher population densities than the eastern ones
Eslöv church, built 1890 in Neo-Gothic style, sometimes known in Swedish as Eslöv Gothic.
The Øresund Bridge
The Annehem neighborhood in Lund
The Turning Torso in Malmö, the tallest building in Sweden.
Location of some SMHI temperature stations in Scania
Traditional half-timbered farm house of the southern plains in Scania.
The house of magistrate Jacob Hansen in Helsingborg, built in 1641.
The Old Church of Södra Åsum in Sjöbo Municipality — a typical example of a medieval Danish Scanian church.
Lund skyline, with the Cathedral towers.
Vittskövle Castle.
Traditional Scanian nuptial array according to Auguste Racinet, in Le costume historique.

Scania is the southernmost of the historical provinces (landskap) of Sweden.

The nearby Copenhagen Airport, which is the largest international airport in the Nordic countries, also serves the province.


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Detail of engraving of Stockholm from Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna by Erik Dahlbergh and Willem Swidde, printed in 1693
Panorama over Stockholm c. 1868 as seen from a hot air balloon
Stockholm in 1917
Stockholm City Centre after the 1960s
Satellite image of Stockholm in 2018 by ESA
The municipal council chamber (Rådssalen), inside Stockholm City Hall
Victoria Tower is one of the tallest buildings in Stockholm, located in Kista.
Headquarters of Ericsson
Stockholm School of Economics
Strandvägen as seen from the island of Djurgården
Djurgårdsbron bridge
Stockholm Public Library, designed by architect Gunnar Asplund
View of Stockholm from Avicii Arena
Söder Torn, an 86 m building in Södermalm
The main hall of the Vasa Museum with a scale model of Vasa as it might have looked on its maiden voyage to the left and the preserved ship itself to the right
Moragården, one of many historical homesteads at the Skansen open-air museum
Royal Dramatic Theatre, one of Stockholm's many theatres
Bookpublisher, Norstedt Building, seen from Vasabron, in Riddarholmen
Friends Arena
Scenes after Hammarby won their first national bandy title in 2010
Stockholm Marathon, near Kungsträdgården in 2008
Park on the island of Djurgården in central Stockholm
A southbound full-length (3 car) C20 metrotrain departing from the Gamla stan station
An A34 tram on line 7 at Djurgårdsbron
Norra länken (North link) motorway in Stockholm
A control point for the congestion charge leading up to Essingeleden
Viking Grace, one of many cruiseferries on the routes to Finland and Åland
Stockholm Central Station

Stockholm is the capital and largest city of Sweden as well as the largest urban area in Scandinavia.

The entire Stockholm metropolitan area, consisting of 26 municipalities, has a population of over 2.2 million, making it the most populous city in the Nordic region.