A report on Norepinephrine

Skeletal formula of noradrenaline
Norepinephrine degradation. Metabolizing enzymes are shown in boxes.
Norepinephrine (labeled "noradrénaline" in this drawing) processing in a synapse. After release norepinephrine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
Schema of the sympathetic nervous system, showing the sympathetic ganglia and the parts of the body to which they connect.
Brain areas containing noradrenergic neurons.
Chemical structure of octopamine, which serves as the homologue of norepinephrine in many invertebrate species

Organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as both a hormone and neurotransmitter.

- Norepinephrine
Skeletal formula of noradrenaline

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Skeletal formula of dopamine

Dopamine

30 links

Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Skeletal formula of dopamine
Dopamine processing in a synapse. After release dopamine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
TH: tyrosine hydroxylase
DOPA: L-DOPA
DAT: dopamine transporter
DDC: DOPA decarboxylase
VMAT: vesicular monoamine transporter 2
MAO: Monoamine oxidase
COMT: Catechol-O-methyl transferase
HVA: Homovanillic acid
Major dopamine pathways. As part of the reward pathway, dopamine is manufactured in nerve cell bodies located within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and is released in the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. The motor functions of dopamine are linked to a separate pathway, with cell bodies in the substantia nigra that manufacture and release dopamine into the dorsal striatum.
Main circuits of the basal ganglia. The dopaminergic pathway from the substantia nigra pars compacta to the striatum is shown in light blue.
Illustration of dopaminergic reward structures
Dopamine HCl preparation, single dose vial for intravenous administration
Cocaine increases dopamine levels by blocking dopamine transporters (DAT), which transport dopamine back into a synaptic terminal after it has been emitted.
Methamphetamine hydrochloride also known as crystal meth
Dopamine can be found in the peel and fruit pulp of bananas.

In blood vessels, it inhibits norepinephrine release and acts as a vasodilator (at normal concentrations); in the kidneys, it increases sodium excretion and urine output; in the pancreas, it reduces insulin production; in the digestive system, it reduces gastrointestinal motility and protects intestinal mucosa; and in the immune system, it reduces the activity of lymphocytes.

Catechol

Catecholamine

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Monoamine neurotransmitter, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups next to each other) and a side-chain amine.

Monoamine neurotransmitter, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups next to each other) and a side-chain amine.

Catechol

Included among catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and dopamine.

Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitter

19 links

Signaling molecule secreted by a neuron to affect another cell across a synapse.

Signaling molecule secreted by a neuron to affect another cell across a synapse.

Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine is cleaved in the synaptic cleft into acetic acid and choline
CAPON Binds Nitric Oxide Synthase, Regulating NMDA Receptor–Mediated Glutamate Neurotransmission

Common neurotransmitters include glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, glycine and norepinephrine.

The biosynthesis of adrenaline involves a series of enzymatic reactions.

Adrenaline

23 links

Hormone and medication which is involved in regulating visceral functions .

Hormone and medication which is involved in regulating visceral functions .

The biosynthesis of adrenaline involves a series of enzymatic reactions.

Dopamine is then converted to noradrenaline by dopamine beta-hydroxylase which utilizes ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and copper.

Skeletal formula of L -DOPA

L-DOPA

9 links

Amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of some plants and animals, including humans.

Amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of some plants and animals, including humans.

Skeletal formula of L -DOPA

-DOPA is the precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline), which are collectively known as catecholamines.

Phenylalanine

9 links

Essential α-amino acid with the formula.

Essential α-amino acid with the formula.

Phenylalanine is a precursor for tyrosine, the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), epinephrine (adrenaline), and the skin pigment melanin.

Schematic illustration showing the sympathetic nervous system with sympathetic cord and target organs.

Sympathetic nervous system

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One of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the others being the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system.

One of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the others being the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system.

Schematic illustration showing the sympathetic nervous system with sympathetic cord and target organs.
The sympathetic nervous system extends from the thoracic to lumbar vertebrae and has connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses.
Scheme showing structure of a typical spinal nerve. 1. Somatic efferent. 2. Somatic afferent. 3,4,5. Sympathetic efferent. 6,7. Sympathetic afferent.
Sympathetic Nervous System – Information transmits through it affecting various organs.

In response to this stimulus, the postganglionic neurons release norepinephrine, which activates adrenergic receptors that are present on the peripheral target tissues.

Dopamine

Monoamine neurotransmitter

10 links

Aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain .

Aromatic ring by a two-carbon chain .

Dopamine
Norepinephrine
Serotonin
A phylogenetic tree showing how a number of monoamine receptors are related to each other.

Examples are dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin.

Medulla labeled at bottom right.

Adrenal medulla

8 links

Part of the adrenal gland.

Part of the adrenal gland.

Medulla labeled at bottom right.
In H&E staining the adrenal medulla (on the pointer) stains lighter than the adrenal cortex.

It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of chromaffin cells that secrete catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and a small amount of dopamine, in response to stimulation by sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

An infographic displaying the fight-or-flight response

Fight-or-flight response

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Physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

Physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

An infographic displaying the fight-or-flight response
Bison hunted by dogs

More specifically, the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine and epinephrine.