Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets
Skeletal formula of noradrenaline
A chart comparing the chemical structures of different amphetamine derivatives
Norepinephrine degradation. Metabolizing enzymes are shown in boxes.
Roasted coffee beans, a common source of caffeine.
Norepinephrine (labeled "noradrénaline" in this drawing) processing in a synapse. After release norepinephrine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
Tablets containing MDMA
Schema of the sympathetic nervous system, showing the sympathetic ganglia and the parts of the body to which they connect.
Lines of illicit cocaine, used as a recreational stimulant
Brain areas containing noradrenergic neurons.
Catha edulis
Chemical structure of octopamine, which serves as the homologue of norepinephrine in many invertebrate species

Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.

- Stimulant

The primary endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system are the catecholamines (i.e., epinephrine [adrenaline], norepinephrine [noradrenaline], and dopamine), which function as both neurotransmitters and hormones.

- Sympathomimetic drug

Thus, all sympathomimetic amines fall into the larger group of stimulants (see psychoactive drug chart).

- Sympathomimetic drug

Many drugs in this class work primarily by activating trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1); in turn, this causes reuptake inhibition and effluxion, or release, of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

- Stimulant

It is found that the endocannabinoid anandamide and the cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 can modify the overall response to sympathetic nerve stimulation, which indicates that prejunctional CB1 receptors mediate the sympatho-inhibitory action.

- Norepinephrine

These are drugs whose primary effects are thought to be mediated by different neurotransmitter systems (dopamine for stimulants, serotonin for antidepressants), but many also increase levels of norepinephrine in the brain.

- Norepinephrine
Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets

2 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Skeletal formula of dopamine

Dopamine

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Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Skeletal formula of dopamine
Dopamine processing in a synapse. After release dopamine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
TH: tyrosine hydroxylase
DOPA: L-DOPA
DAT: dopamine transporter
DDC: DOPA decarboxylase
VMAT: vesicular monoamine transporter 2
MAO: Monoamine oxidase
COMT: Catechol-O-methyl transferase
HVA: Homovanillic acid
Major dopamine pathways. As part of the reward pathway, dopamine is manufactured in nerve cell bodies located within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and is released in the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. The motor functions of dopamine are linked to a separate pathway, with cell bodies in the substantia nigra that manufacture and release dopamine into the dorsal striatum.
Main circuits of the basal ganglia. The dopaminergic pathway from the substantia nigra pars compacta to the striatum is shown in light blue.
Illustration of dopaminergic reward structures
Dopamine HCl preparation, single dose vial for intravenous administration
Cocaine increases dopamine levels by blocking dopamine transporters (DAT), which transport dopamine back into a synaptic terminal after it has been emitted.
Methamphetamine hydrochloride also known as crystal meth
Dopamine can be found in the peel and fruit pulp of bananas.

In blood vessels, it inhibits norepinephrine release and acts as a vasodilator (at normal concentrations); in the kidneys, it increases sodium excretion and urine output; in the pancreas, it reduces insulin production; in the digestive system, it reduces gastrointestinal motility and protects intestinal mucosa; and in the immune system, it reduces the activity of lymphocytes.

Dopaminergic stimulants can be addictive in high doses, but some are used at lower doses to treat ADHD.

Drugs that increase synaptic dopamine concentrations include psychostimulants such as methamphetamine and cocaine.

Amphetamine

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Amphetamine (contracted from a lpha- m ethyl ph en et hyl amine ) is a strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

Amphetamine increases monoamine and excitatory neurotransmission in the brain, with its most pronounced effects targeting the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitter systems.

Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4-hydroxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxynorephedrine, and norephedrine.