Norman conquest of southern Italy

Norman conquestNorman conquest of SicilyNormanNormansLombard RevoltSicilyconquest of Sicilyconquest of southern ItalySouthern Italyconquest of southern Italy and Sicily
The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors.wikipedia
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Kingdom of Sicily

SicilySicilianKing of Sicily
In 1130 these territories in southern Italy united as the Kingdom of Sicily, which included the island of Sicily, the southern third of the Italian Peninsula (except Benevento, which was briefly held twice), the archipelago of Malta and parts of North Africa.
It was a successor state of the County of Sicily, which had been founded in 1071 during the Norman conquest of the southern peninsula.

Sicily

SicilianSiciliaSicilians
In 1130 these territories in southern Italy united as the Kingdom of Sicily, which included the island of Sicily, the southern third of the Italian Peninsula (except Benevento, which was briefly held twice), the archipelago of Malta and parts of North Africa.
The Norman conquest of southern Italy led to the creation of the Kingdom of Sicily, which was subsequently ruled by the Hohenstaufen, the Capetian House of Anjou, Spain, and the House of Habsburg.

Normans

NormanNorman timesAnglo-Norman
Itinerant Norman forces arrived in the Mezzogiorno as mercenaries in the service of Lombard and Byzantine factions, communicating news swiftly back home about opportunities in the Mediterranean.
Norman adventurers played a role in founding the Kingdom of Sicily under Roger II after briefly conquering southern Italy and Malta from the Saracens and Byzantines, during an expedition on behalf of their duke, William the Conqueror, which also led to the Norman conquest of England at the historic Battle of Hastings in 1066.

Lombards

LombardLongobardsLongobard
Itinerant Norman forces arrived in the Mezzogiorno as mercenaries in the service of Lombard and Byzantine factions, communicating news swiftly back home about opportunities in the Mediterranean.
However, Lombard nobles continued to rule southern parts of the Italian peninsula well into the 11th century, when they were conquered by the Normans and added to their County of Sicily.

Malta

MalteseMaltese IslandsRepublic of Malta
In 1130 these territories in southern Italy united as the Kingdom of Sicily, which included the island of Sicily, the southern third of the Italian Peninsula (except Benevento, which was briefly held twice), the archipelago of Malta and parts of North Africa.
The Normans attacked Malta in 1091, as part of their conquest of Sicily.

Amatus of Montecassino

AmatusAmatus of Monte CassinoAimé of Monte Cassino
The Salerno tradition was first recorded by Amatus of Montecassino in his Ystoire de li Normant between 1071 and 1086.
His History of the Normans (which has survived only in its medieval French translation, L'Ystoire de li Normant), is one of three principle primary sources for the Norman Conquest of southern Italy--the other two being the histories of William of Apulia and Geoffrey Malaterra.

Bari

Bari, Italy(BA)Barese
On 9 May 1009, an insurrection erupted in Bari against the Catapanate of Italy, the regional Byzantine authority based there.
After the devastations of the Gothic Wars, under Longobard rule a set of written regulations was established, the Consuetudines Barenses, which influenced similar written constitutions in other southern cities.Until the arrival of the Normans, Bari continued to be governed by the Longobards and Byzantines, with only occasional interruption.

John Julius Norwich

Norwich, John JuliusLord NorwichJohn Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich
Some scholars have combined the Salerno and Gargano tales, and John Julius Norwich suggested that the meeting between Melus and the Normans had been arranged by Guaimar.
His subsequent books included histories of Sicily under the Normans (1967, 1970), Venice (1977, 1981), Byzantium (1988, 1992, 1995), the Mediterranean (2006), and the Papacy (2011), amongst others (see list below).

Italy runestones

Runestonesrunestone U 133Runestones mention Italy
In particular, three or four eleventh-century Swedish Runestones mention Italy, memorialising warriors who died in 'Langbarðaland', the Old Norse name for southern Italy (Langobardia Minor).
The Greeks had to fight several battles against the Normans in Southern Italy during the mid-11th century.

Guaimar IV of Salerno

Guaimar IVGuaimarGuaimar I
The future king of Norway, Harald Hardrada, commanded the Varangian Guard in the expedition and Michael called on Guaimar IV of Salerno and other Lombard lords to provide additional troops for the campaign.
He was an important figure in the final phase of Byzantine authority in the Mezzogiorno and the commencement of Norman power.

William of Apulia

Gesta Roberti Wiscardi
As with the Salerno tradition, there are two primary sources for the Gargano story: the Gesta Roberti Wiscardi of William of Apulia (dated 1088–1110) and the Chronica monasterii S. Bartholomaei de Carpineto of a monk named Alexander, written about a century later and based on William's work.
His Latin epic, Gesta Roberti Wiscardi ("The Deeds of Robert Guiscard"), written in hexameters, is one of the principal contemporary sources for the Norman conquest of southern Italy, especially the career of Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia (1059–1085).

Varangian Guard

VarangiansVarangianVarangian Guards
The future king of Norway, Harald Hardrada, commanded the Varangian Guard in the expedition and Michael called on Guaimar IV of Salerno and other Lombard lords to provide additional troops for the campaign. At Boioannes' request, a detachment of the elite Varangian Guard was sent to Italy to fight the Normans.
In 1018, Basil II received a request from his catepan of Italy, Basil Boioannes, for reinforcements to put down the Lombard revolt of Melus of Bari.

Robert Guiscard

Robert Guiscard de HautevilleRobert "Guiscard" HautevilleRobert Guiscard, Duke of Calabria
Also that year, Richard Drengot arrived with 40 knights from Normandy and Robert "Guiscard" Hauteville arrived with other Norman immigrants.
1015 – 17 July 1085) was a Norman adventurer remembered for the conquest of southern Italy and Sicily.

Michael Dokeianos

Michael Doukeianos
On 16 March 1041, near Venosa on the Olivento, the Norman army tried to negotiate with Catapan Michael Dokeianos; although they failed, they still defeated the Byzantine army in the Battle of Olivento.
He was recalled after being twice defeated in battle during the Lombard-Norman revolt of 1041, a decisive moment in the eventual Norman conquest of southern Italy.

Catepanate of Italy

catepan of ItalyCatapanate of ItalyCatapan of Italy
On 9 May 1009, an insurrection erupted in Bari against the Catapanate of Italy, the regional Byzantine authority based there.
Bari was captured by the Normans in April 1071, and Byzantine authority was finally terminated in Italy, five centuries after the conquests of Justinian I.

Hauteville family

HautevilleHautevillesHouse of Hauteville
They were forced to flee the city by a Lombard, Lando, who ruled it with popular support until he was forced out by the combined Hauteville forces in the siege of Capua in 1098; this ended Lombard rule in Italy.
The Hautevilles rose to prominence through their part in the Norman conquest of southern Italy.

Battle of Civitate

Battle of Civitate sul FortoreBattle of Civitella del Fortore
At the Battle of Civitate the Normans destroyed the papal army and captured Leo IX, imprisoning him in Benevento (which had surrendered).
By 1059 the Normans would create an alliance with the papacy, which included a formal recognition by Pope Nicholas II of the Norman conquest in south Italy, investing Robert Guiscard as Duke of Apulia and Calabria, and Count of Sicily.

Orderic Vitalis

Ordericus VitalisHistoria ecclesiasticaOrderic
One of the brothers, Osmund (according to Orderic Vitalis) or Gilbert (according to Amatus and Peter the Deacon), murdered William Repostel (Repostellus) in the presence of Robert I, Duke of Normandy after Repostel allegedly boasted about dishonouring his murderer's daughter.
He has much to say concerning the Empire, the papacy, the Normans in Sicily and Apulia and the First Crusade (for which he follows Fulcher of Chartres and Baudri of Bourgueil, but with notable alterations ).

Battle of Cerami

In June 1063 he defeated a Muslim army at the Battle of Cerami, securing the Norman foothold on the island.
The Battle of Cerami was fought in June 1063 and was one of the most significant battles in the Norman conquest of Sicily, 1060–1091.

List of monarchs of Sicily

King of SicilySicilyCount of Sicily
Robert invested Roger as Count of Sicily under the suzerainty of the Duke of Apulia.
The origins of the Sicilian monarchy lie in the Norman conquest of southern Italy which occurred between the 11th and 12th century.

Cosenza

Cosenza, ItalyDonniciConsentia
In 1048 Drogo commanded an expedition into Calabria via the valley of Crati, near Cosenza.
By the first half of the eleventh century, Lombard Calabria became a feudal dukedom of the Normans, with Cosenza as capital.

Palermo

Palermo, SicilyPalermo, ItalyPanormus
Robert returned in 1064, bypassing Castrogiovanni on his way to Palermo; this campaign was eventually called off.
Following the Norman reconquest, Palermo became the capital of a new kingdom (from 1130 to 1816), the Kingdom of Sicily and the capital of the Holy Roman Empire under Emperor Frederick II and King Conrad IV.

Landulf V of Benevento

Landulf VLandulf
There, they met the Beneventan primates (leading men): Landulf V of Benevento, Pandulf IV of Capua, (possibly) Guaimar III of Salerno and Melus of Bari.
His other son, Atenulf, as later elected leader of the Normans in southern Italy.

Amicus of Giovinazzo

AmicoAmico of GiovinazzoAmico II of Giovinazzo
Peter's cousin Amico (son of Walter of Giovinazzo) attacked the islands of Rab and Cres, taking Croatian king Petar Krešimir IV captive.
1063–1090), was a Norman nobleman and military leader during the Norman conquest of southern Italy.

Rainulf Drengot

Ranulf DrengotRanulfRainulf
According to him, Gilbert's brothers were Osmund, Ranulf, Asclettin and Ludolf (Rudolf, according to Peter).