A report on Norridgewock

Old Point in 1849
Abenaki couple, an 18th-century watercolor by an unknown artist. Courtesy of the City of Montreal Records Management & Archives, Montreal, Quebec
An incendiary attack
Indian warrior with scalp
The site of the Norridgewock Native American village in Maine, in what is now Madison. The rock at the side of the road bears a plaque marking the site.
Detail of the memorial plaque.

The name of both an Indigenous village and a band of the Abenaki Native Americans/First Nations, an Eastern Algonquian tribe of the United States and Canada.

- Norridgewock
Old Point in 1849

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Acadia (1754)

Acadia

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Colony of New France in northeastern North America which included parts of what are now the Maritime provinces, the Gaspé Peninsula and Maine to the Kennebec River.

Colony of New France in northeastern North America which included parts of what are now the Maritime provinces, the Gaspé Peninsula and Maine to the Kennebec River.

Acadia (1754)
The French claimed that the Kennebec River formed the border between Acadia and New England, seen here on a map of Maine
Siege of Saint John (1645) – d'Aulnay defeats La Tour in Acadia
Acadia in 1757
French map of 1720 North America. Acadie extends clearly into present-day New Brunswick.
Duc d'Anville Expedition: Action between and the Mars
Acadians at Annapolis Royal, by Samuel Scott, 1751; earliest known image of Acadians
St. John River Campaign: A View of the Plundering and Burning of the City of Grimross (present day Gagetown, New Brunswick) by Thomas Davies in 1758. This is the only contemporaneous image of the Expulsion of the Acadians.
Siege of Louisbourg (1758)
This Acadian flag was established at the second Acadian Convention in 1884 at Miscouche, Prince Edward Island.
Main Acadian communities of Acadia before the deportation
Charles de Menou d'Aulnay – Civil War in Acadia
Françoise-Marie Jacquelin – Civil War in Acadia
Baron de Saint-Castin – Castine's War
Jean-Baptiste Hertel de Rouville – Queen Anne's War
Daniel d'Auger de Subercase, last governor of Acadia 1706–1710
Sébastien Rale – Father Rale's War
Chief Jean-Baptiste Cope – Father Le Loutre's War
Jean-Louis Le Loutre – Father Le Loutre's War
Thomas Pichon
Joseph (Beausoleil) Broussard
Siege of Louisbourg (1758)

During much of the 17th and early 18th centuries, Norridgewock on the Kennebec River and Castine at the end of the Penobscot River were the southernmost settlements of Acadia.

Battle of Norridgewock (1724): Death of Father Sebastian Rale

Dummer's War

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Also known as Father Rale's War, Lovewell's War, Greylock's War, the Three Years War, the Wabanaki-New England War, or the 4th Anglo-Abenaki War.

Also known as Father Rale's War, Lovewell's War, Greylock's War, the Three Years War, the Wabanaki-New England War, or the 4th Anglo-Abenaki War.

Battle of Norridgewock (1724): Death of Father Sebastian Rale
A New Map of the North Parts of America claimed by France under the names of Louisiana... in 1720 drawn by Herman Moll
Raid on Norridgewock (1722): Westbrook confiscates Father Rale's Strongbox
Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts William Dummer
The Father Rale memorial at the battle site in Madison, Maine
Death of Chief Paugus
Monument of Chief Grey Lock in Battery Park (Burlington, Vermont)

New France established Catholic missions among the four largest Native villages in the region: one on the Kennebec River (Norridgewock), one farther north on the Penobscot River (Penobscot Indian Island Reservation), one on the Saint John River (Meductic Indian Village / Fort Meductic), and one at Shubenacadie, Nova Scotia (Saint Anne's Mission).

Maine

9 links

State in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest, respectively.

State in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest, respectively.

Maine State House, designed by Charles Bulfinch, built 1829–1832
Misty Morning, Coast of MaineArthur Parton (1842–1914). Between 1865 and 1870, Brooklyn Museum.
A map of Maine and surrounding regions
The Maine coast and Portland Head Light
Rocky shoreline in Acadia National Park
Autumn in the Hundred-Mile Wilderness
Köppen climate types of Maine, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Winter in Bangor
Maine population density map
Bath Iron Works naval shipbuilding
Lobstering in Portland
Maine blueberries. The U.S.'s only commercial producers of wild blueberries are located in Maine.
Portland International Jetport
The Penobscot Narrows Bridge, carrying U.S. Route 1 and Maine State Route 3 over the Penobscot River
A southbound Downeaster passenger train at Ocean Park, Maine, as viewed from the cab of a northbound train
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election
The University of Maine is the state's only research university.
Colby, Bates, and Bowdoin (pictured) Colleges form the Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Consortium
College hockey being played at the Cross Insurance Center
Two moose in the Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge. The moose is Maine's state mammal.
1. Portland
2. Lewiston
3. Bangor
4. South Portland
5. Auburn
6. Biddeford
7. Sanford
8. Brunswick
9. Saco
10. Scarborough
11. Westbrook
12. Augusta
Party registration by county: (November 2020)

The other Abenaki tribes suffered several severe defeats, particularly during Dummer's War, with the capture of Norridgewock in 1724 and the defeat of the Pequawket in 1725, which significantly reduced their numbers.

<center>Western Abenaki (Arsigantegok, Missisquoi, Cowasuck, Sokoki, Pennacook)</center>

Abenaki

7 links

Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands of Canada and the United States.

Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands of Canada and the United States.

<center>Western Abenaki (Arsigantegok, Missisquoi, Cowasuck, Sokoki, Pennacook)</center>
<center>Eastern Abenaki (Penobscot, Kennebec, Arosaguntacook, Pigwacket/Pequawket)</center>
Abenaki teepee with birch bark covering.
Flag of Missisquoi Abenaki Tribe, a state-recognized tribe in Vermont
Statue of Keewakwa Abenaki Keenahbeh in Opechee Park in Laconia, New Hampshire (standing at 36 ft.)
<center>Miꞌkmaq</center>
<center>Maliseet,

Kennebec (also Kinipekw, Kennebeck, Caniba, later known as Norridgewock), lived in the Kennebec River Valley in northern Maine. Principal village: Norridgewock (Naridgewalk, Neridgewok, Noronjawoke); other villages: Amaseconti (Amesokanti, Anmissoukanti), Kennebec, and Sagadahoc.

Kennebec River

8 links

170 mi river within the U.S. state of Maine.

170 mi river within the U.S. state of Maine.

The course of the Kennebec River
Champlain's 1607 chart of the Kennebec
A U.S. Coast Guard cutter breaks ice on the Kennebec River near Bath, Maine; March 2005
The Kennebec at the capital city of Augusta
The Kennebec River just south of Bath

In the 1600s the Abenaki village of Norridgewock was located along the Kennebec.

Count Frontenac, governor of New France, refused English demands to surrender prior to the Battle of Quebec.

King William's War

8 links

The North American theater of the Nine Years' War (1688–1697), also known as the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg.

The North American theater of the Nine Years' War (1688–1697), also known as the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg.

Count Frontenac, governor of New France, refused English demands to surrender prior to the Battle of Quebec.
At the end of the 17th century, English settlers outnumbered the French, although the English were divided into multiple colonies along the Atlantic.
Map of the campaigns during the war
Major Richard Waldron shortly before his death during the Abenaki raid on Dover
William Phips, the Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, led an assault on Port Royal.
In 1699, a military campaign saw the sacking of English settlements on the Avalon Peninsula.
French batteries bombard the English fleet during the Battle of Quebec.
Sinking of the Pélican after the Battle of Hudson's Bay. Although victorious in battle, Pélican sustained damage and subsequently sunk.

To secure New France's claim to present-day Maine, New France established Catholic missions among the three largest native villages in the region: one on the Kennebec River (Norridgewock); one further north on the Penobscot River (Penobscot) and one on the Saint John River (Medoctec).

Map of European colonies in America, 1702

Queen Anne's War

8 links

The second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought in North America involving the colonial empires of Great Britain, France, and Spain; it took place during the reign of Anne, Queen of Great Britain.

The second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought in North America involving the colonial empires of Great Britain, France, and Spain; it took place during the reign of Anne, Queen of Great Britain.

Map of European colonies in America, 1702
Philip of Anjou proclaimed as the King of Spain in November 1700. A dispute over his succession led to war between the Grand Alliance and the Bourbon alliance.
Stone fortifications of Port Royal, Acadia, 1702. Few settlements had stone fortification at the start of the war.
Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville sought to establish a relationship with natives in the Mississippi watershed as a result of the last war with England.
New French raid on Deerfield, Massachusetts in February, 1704
In June 1704, a force of 500 New Englanders raided the settlement of Grand-Pré, defended by the Acadian and Mi'kmaq militia.
The evacuation of French forces from Port Royal after the English captured the settlement. The fall of Port Royal ended French control over the eastern peninsula of Acadia.
Hendrick Tejonihokarawa, a Mohawk chief, was successful in gaining support from Anne, Queen of Great Britain, to launch an expedition to take Quebec City.
In 1705, Daniel d'Auger de Subercase, the Governor of Plaisance, led a French and Mi'kmaq expedition against English settlements in Newfoundland.
Map of European colonies in North America. Areas in purple were territories France ceded to England in the Treaty of Utrecht, the peace treaty that concluded the war.
Shortly after the war, the French established the Fortress of Louisbourg. The fortified settlement was located to the north of the ceded Acadian territory, on Cape Breton Island.
The Battle of Norridgewock during Dummer's War, August 1724. After portions of Acadia were ceded, the British faced resistance from Abenaki and Mi'kmaq tribes.

There were Catholic missions at Norridgewock and Penobscot and a French settlement in Penobscot Bay near Castine, Maine, which had all been bases for attacks on New England settlers migrating toward Acadia during King William's War.

Looking across the Kennebec River at the Madison Paper Mill, Summer Solstice 2008

Madison, Maine

2 links

Looking across the Kennebec River at the Madison Paper Mill, Summer Solstice 2008
Main Street in 1911
Bridge and mill {{circa|1912}}
Public library {{circa|1912}}
The Weston Hotel {{circa|1912}}

Madison (formerly Norridgewock) is a town in Somerset County, Maine, United States.

Norridgewock, Maine

2 links

Town in Somerset County, Maine, United States.

Town in Somerset County, Maine, United States.

Battle of Norridgewock
Main Street in 1904
Eaton School {{circa|1880}}
Covered bridge {{circa|1912}}

Situated on the New England and Acadia border, which New France defined as the Kennebec River, the area was once territory of the Norridgewock Indians, a band of the Abenaki nation.

New France

6 links

The area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris.

The area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris.

Location of New France (dark green) in 1712
A map of New France made by Samuel de Champlain in 1612
Location of New France (dark green) in 1712
Champlain's Habitation c. 1608
A map of western New France, including the Illinois Country, by Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688
The Merchant Flag of France (1689 design), inspiration for the flag of Quebec
One group of King's Daughters arrives at Quebec, 1667
Political map of the northeastern part of North America in 1664
French comfort women transported to Louisiana as brides for the colonists
Jean Talon, count of Orsainville, first intendant of New France.
Card money in New France had the same currency value in the colony as minted currency. c.1714
Company of New France building in present day Quebec City
The arrival of Radisson in an Amerindian camp in 1660
Map showing the approximate location of major tribes and settlements
1681 French map of the New World above the equator: New France and the Great Lakes in the north, with a dark line as the Mississippi River to the west in the Illinois Country and the mouth of the river (and future New Orleans) then terra incognita
Map of Canada (New France) in 1703, showing full length of Mississippi River
Le Grand Voyage du Pays des Hurons, Gabriel Sagard, 1632
Governor Frontenac performing a tribal dance with indigenous allies
Engraving depicting Adam Dollard with a keg of gunpowder above his head, during the Battle of Long Sault
Map of North America in 1702 showing forts, towns and (in solid colors) areas occupied by European settlements
An 1850s depiction of the death of the French Jesuit priest Sébastien Rale during Father Rale's War
Map of territorial claims in North America by 1750, before the French and Indian War, which was part of the greater worldwide conflict known as the Seven Years' War (1756 to 1763). Possessions of Britain (pink), France (blue), and Spain (orange, California, Pacific Northwest, and Great Basin not indicated)
Map showing British territorial gains following the Treaty of Paris in pink, and Spanish territorial gains after the Treaty of Fontainebleau in yellow
A chart showing the political organization of New France, c. 1759

To secure New France's claim to the region, it established Catholic missions among the three largest indigenous villages in the region: one on the Kennebec River (Norridgewock); one further north on the Penobscot River (Penobscot) and one on the Saint John River (Medoctec).