North-West Mounted Police

Royal Northwest Mounted PoliceNorth West Mounted PoliceNorthwest Mounted PoliceRoyal North-West Mounted PoliceNWMPMounted PoliceMountiesRoyal North West Mounted PoliceMountieB Squadron, RNWMP
The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) was a Canadian police force, established in 1873 by the Prime Minister, Sir John Macdonald, to maintain order in the North-West Territories.wikipedia
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Royal Irish Constabulary

RICIrish ConstabularyR.I.C.
The mounted police combined military, police and judicial functions along similar lines to the Royal Irish Constabulary, and deployed the following year to the Alberta border in response to the Cypress Hills Massacre and subsequent fears of a United States military intervention.
The RIC's successful system of policing influenced the armed Canadian North-West Mounted Police (predecessor of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police), the armed Victoria Police force in Australia, and the armed Royal Newfoundland Constabulary in Newfoundland.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police

RCMPMountieMounties
In the aftermath of the violence of the Winnipeg General Strike, the government decided to amalgamate the force with the Dominion Police, to form the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 1920.
Macdonald then renamed the force the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) when formed in 1873.

Dominion Police

Western Frontier Constabulary
In the aftermath of the violence of the Winnipeg General Strike, the government decided to amalgamate the force with the Dominion Police, to form the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in 1920.
On 1 February 1920, the Dominion Police was merged with the North-West Mounted Police to form the Royal Canadian Mounted Police as the new federal police force of Canada.

Cypress Hills Massacre

Cypress Hills Massacre;
The mounted police combined military, police and judicial functions along similar lines to the Royal Irish Constabulary, and deployed the following year to the Alberta border in response to the Cypress Hills Massacre and subsequent fears of a United States military intervention. In June 1873, around 30 members of the Assiniboine First Nation were killed in the Cypress Hills Massacre, creating a national furore.
The Cypress Hills Massacre prompted the Canadian government to accelerate the recruitment and deployment of the newly formed North-West Mounted Police to prevent further conflict.

North-West Rebellion

Northwest RebellionRiel RebellionNorth West Rebellion
The force formed part of the military response to the North-West Rebellion in 1885, but faced criticism for their performance during the conflict.
In addition, the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) had been created, developing an armed local force.

Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
The North-West Mounted Police was created due to the expansion of the newly formed Dominion of Canada into the North-West Territories during the 1870s.
To open the West to European immigration, parliament also approved sponsoring the construction of three transcontinental railways (including the Canadian Pacific Railway), opening the prairies to settlement with the Dominion Lands Act, and establishing the North-West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory.

Fort Macleod

Fort Macleod, AlbertaMacleodMacleod, Alberta
The force received new orders from Ottawa to garrison the area and settled down to build Fort Macleod on an island in Old Man's River.
It was founded as a North-West Mounted Police barracks, and is named in honour of the North-West Mounted Police Colonel James Macleod.

Fort Calgary

CalgaryDeane HouseDeane House (Fort Calgary)
After enduring a difficult winter with only limited supplies, the force broke up their main command, some remaining at Fort Macleod, with others establishing forts at Dufferin, Swan River, Edmonton, Winnipeg and Ellice, with Walsh and Calgary following soon after.
Fort Calgary was established in 1875 as Fort Brisebois by the North-West Mounted Police at the confluence of the Bow and Elbow rivers, on traditional Niitsitapi (Blackfoot) territory in what is now called Calgary.

Fort Walsh

Fort Walsh National Historic SiteFort Walsh, SaskatchewanFarwell's Trading Post
After enduring a difficult winter with only limited supplies, the force broke up their main command, some remaining at Fort Macleod, with others establishing forts at Dufferin, Swan River, Edmonton, Winnipeg and Ellice, with Walsh and Calgary following soon after.
Fort Walsh is a National Historic Site of Canada that was a North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) fort and the site of the Cypress Hills Massacre.

Swan River, Manitoba

Swan RiverTown of Swan RiverSomerset House
After enduring a difficult winter with only limited supplies, the force broke up their main command, some remaining at Fort Macleod, with others establishing forts at Dufferin, Swan River, Edmonton, Winnipeg and Ellice, with Walsh and Calgary following soon after.
In 1876, the musical band of the North-West Mounted Police, the forerunner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, made its debut in what was later to become Swan River.

Battle of Cut Knife

Cut KnifeBattle of Cut Knife Hillbattle of Cut Knife Creek
There the column surprised Poundmakers's camp, but the attack by the advance troops failed and the government forces were forced to retreat.
The Battle of Cut Knife, fought on May 2, 1885, occurred when a flying column of mounted police, militia, and Canadian army regular army units attacked a Cree and Assiniboine teepee settlement near Battleford, Saskatchewan.

Battle of Duck Lake

Duck Lakeresulting fight
In the process, Crozier confronted a larger force of rebels at Duck Lake, where his detachment came off much worse in the resulting fight.
The Battle of Duck Lake (26 March 1885) was an infantry skirmish 2.5 km outside Duck Lake, Saskatchewan, between North-West Mounted Police forces of the Government of Canada, and the Métis militia of Louis Riel's newly established Provisional Government of Saskatchewan.

Manitoba

MBManitoba, CanadaProvince of Manitoba
As a result, the territories remained thinly populated, with only around 150,000 First Nations, Inuit and occasional small groups of Europeans, and more substantial communities of around 12,000 Métis settled in the Red River valley of Manitoba and a further 8,500 European settlers in the colony of British Columbia.
Government efforts to violently crush the strike, including a Royal Northwest Mounted Police charge into a crowd of protesters that resulted in multiple casualties and one death, had led to the arrest of the movement's leaders.

Acheson Irvine

Acheson Gosford IrvineAcheson G. IrvineColonel Acheson Irvine
The mounted police helped to facilitate the negotiations with the Sioux, in which Assistant Commissioner Acheson Irvine played a prominent part.
Acheson Gosford Irvine, ISO (December 7, 1837 – January 8, 1916) served as Commissioner of the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) from November 1, 1880, to March 31, 1886.

Leif Newry Fitzroy Crozier

Leif CrozierL.N.F. CrozierMajor Crozier
Superintendent Leif Crozier took a force of police, civilian volunteers and a 7-pounder (3 kg) gun to Fort Carlton and attempted to seize a cache of supplies.
Leif Newry Fitzroy Crozier (11 June 1846 – 25 February 1901), commonly known as L.N.F. Crozier, was a Canadian militia officer and a superintendent of the North-West Mounted Police, now best remembered for his role in the North-West Rebellion of 1885, a resistance movement headed by Métis leader Louis Riel in what is now the modern province of Saskatchewan.

Fort Dufferin

Another 150 men were recruited in eastern Canada and sent west by rail through the United States to rendezvous with the first part of the force at Fort Dufferin.
The fort was used during the 1870s as a base for the North American Boundary Commission and the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP), and as an immigration station.

Prince Albert, Saskatchewan

Prince AlbertPrince Albert, SKIsbister's Settlement
When the rebellion finally broke out in Batoche in March, Irvine advanced quickly through the snow from Regina to Prince Albert, which he garrisoned with 90 police.
Surrounding settlers took refuge with the North-West Mounted Police in a hastily improvised stockade at Prince Albert, fearing an attack by Gabriel Dumont, which never came.

Alberta

Alberta, CanadaABAlberta Transportation
The mounted police combined military, police and judicial functions along similar lines to the Royal Irish Constabulary, and deployed the following year to the Alberta border in response to the Cypress Hills Massacre and subsequent fears of a United States military intervention. The Canadian border along the southern edge of Alberta was occupied by the Blackfoot Confederacy, a First Nation whose economy was based on hunting bison.
Policing in the province of Alberta upon its creation was the responsibility of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police.

Lethbridge

Lethbridge, AlbertaLethbridge, ABLeth.
In the mining town of Lethbridge, for example, the Alberta Railway and Coal Company locked out its workforce in 1894 during an attempt to cut staff and reduce wages; a team of ten police was deployed to maintain order, in particular any risks posed by eastern European immigrants, and to mediate in the dispute.
The North-West Mounted Police, sent to stop the trade and establish order, arrived at Fort Whoop-Up on October 9, 1874.

Blackfoot Confederacy

BlackfootBlackfeetBlackfoot Indians
The Canadian border along the southern edge of Alberta was occupied by the Blackfoot Confederacy, a First Nation whose economy was based on hunting bison.
A friendly relationship with the North-West Mounted Police and learning of the brutality of the Marias Massacre discouraged the Blackfoot from engaging in wars against Canada and the United States.

Henri Julien

French had negotiated that the expedition be accompanied by Henri Julien, a journalist whom the commissioner hoped would write a positive account of the new force.
In 1874 he accompanied George Arthur French and the North-West Mounted Police on an expedition to the fork of the Bow and Belly Rivers in Alberta; his drawings of the Canadian West appeared in the Canadian Illustrated News and L'Opinion publique in 1874–75, including a report on combatting contraband alcohol sales in Fort Whoop-Up.

Bow River

BowBow River valleyBow River Irrigation District
When the force arrived at what they thought was Fort Whoop-Up at the junction of the Bow and South Saskatchewan rivers on September 10, there was nothing to be seen, as the fort was in fact around 75 mi away.
To stop these operations, the recently formed North-West Mounted Police (later the RCMP) established Fort Calgary in 1875 at the confluence of the Elbow River and the Bow.

Francis Dickens

Francis Jeffrey Dickens
The police rapidly abandoned most of their posts along the valley, falling back to more easily defensible locations; Inspector Francis Dickens was forced to flee Fort Pitt with his men on a makeshift boat.
Following his father's death in 1870 he inherited some money, but he soon went through this, and his aunt, Georgina Hogarth (Catherine Dickens' sister) used her influence with family friend Lord Dufferin, then Governor General of Canada, to get Francis Dickens a commission in the North-West Mounted Police.

George Arthur French

George FrenchG.A. French
The commissioner of the new force, Colonel George French, was ordered to proceed west from Fort Dufferin to deal with what the authorities described as the "band of desperadoes" around Fort Whoop-Up, before then dispersing his force to establish police posts stretching across the territories.
French was appointed to organise the North-West Mounted Police on its creation in 1873, and the next year he led the force on its famous march to the foothills of the Rockies.

Assiniboine

AssiniboinesAssiniboine peopleNakota
In June 1873, around 30 members of the Assiniboine First Nation were killed in the Cypress Hills Massacre, creating a national furore.