North America

Map of populous North America showing physical, political and population characteristics as per 2018
Map of North America, from 1621
The totality of North America seen by the Apollo 16 crew, with Canada being covered by clouds
Landforms and land cover of North America
Sonoran Desert in Arizona
Moraine Lake in Banff National Park
Nuuk, the capital city of Greenland
Principal hydrological divides of Canada, the United States and Mexico
Geologic map of North America published by USGS
North America map of Köppen climate classification
Map of North America in 1702 showing forts, towns and (in solid colors) areas occupied by European settlements
Non-native nations' control and claims over North America c. 1750–2008
Native languages of the US, Canada, Greenland, and Northern Mexico
Percentage of people who identify with a religion in North America, according to 2010–2012 data
Mexican President Peña Nieto, U.S. President Trump, and Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau sign the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement during the G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 30 November 2018
Worlds regions by total wealth (in trillions USD), 2018
2006 map of the North American Class I railroad network
Baseball is traditionally known as America's national pastime, but is also played in Canada, and many Latin American countries as well.

Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere.

- North America

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Settlement of the Americas

Map of early human migrations based on the Out of Africa theory; figures are in thousands of years ago (kya)
Figure1. Submergence of the Beringian land bridge with post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) rise in eustatic sea level
Potential extent of human survivability during the last glacial maximum.
Vegetation cover at the Last Glacial Maximum period ~18,000 years ago, describing the type of vegetation cover present
A diagram of the formation of the Great Lakes
Map of Beringia showing the exposed seafloor and glaciation at 40,000 years ago and 16,000 years ago. The green arrow indicates the "interior migration" model along an ice-free corridor separating the major continental ice sheets, the red arrow indicates the "coastal migration" model, both leading to a "rapid colonization" of the Americas after c. 16,000 years ago.
Figure 2. Schematic illustration of maternal (mtDNA) gene-flow in and out of Beringia (long chronology, single source model).
Map of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups - Dominant haplogroups in pre-colonial populations with propose migrations routes
Map showing the approximate location of the ice-free corridor along the Continental Divide, separating the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets. Also indicated are the locations of the Clovis and Folsom Paleo-Indian sites.

The settlement of the Americas began when Paleolithic hunter-gatherers entered North America from the North Asian Mammoth steppe via the Beringia land bridge, which had formed between northeastern Siberia and western Alaska due to the lowering of sea level during the Last Glacial Maximum (26,000 to 19,000 years ago).

Archaic period (North America)

Copper knife, spearpoints, awls, and spud, from the Late Archaic period, Wisconsin, 3000–1000 BC

In the classification of the, the Archaic period in North America, taken to last from around 8000 to 1000 BC in the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages, is a period defined by the archaic stage of cultural development.

Greenland

Island country part of the Kingdom of Denmark.

Greenland visible from space
Areas of Independence I and Independence II cultures around Independence Fjord
The Kingittorsuaq Runestone from Kingittorsuaq Island (Middle Ages)
One of the last contemporary written mentions of the Norse Greenlanders records a marriage which took place in 1408 in the church of Hvalsey – today the best-preserved Nordic ruins in Greenland. The married couple then travelled to Iceland, which is why the account has been preserved.
Ingibjørg Tombstone.
Pictures of Greenland, c. 1863
An English map of 1747, based on Hans Egede's descriptions and misconceptions, by Emanuel Bowen
Godthåb in Greenland, c. 1878
1869 photograph of Greenlandic Inuit.
Map of Eirik Raudes Land
The orthography and vocabulary of the Greenlandic language is governed by Oqaasileriffik, the Greenlandic language secretariat, located in the Ilimmarfik University of Greenland, Nuuk.
The United States has operated Thule Air Base since the 1950s.
Sermiligaaq. Greenland has more than 60 settlements.
Map of Greenland
Greenland bedrock, at current elevation above sea level
Aurora Borealis, the northern lights at the sky in Greenland
Muskoxen in Greenland
The Greenland Dog was brought from Siberia 1,000 years ago.
Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, in Disko Bay near Ilulissat
The special territories of the European Union (pre 31 January 2020)
Nuuk is Greenland's capital and the seat of the government.
Municipalities of Greenland
A proportional representation of Greenland exports, 2019
Greenland electricity production by source
Air Greenland operates passenger and cargo freight services by air from, to and across Greenland.
Arctic Umiaq Line operates passenger and freight services by sea across Greenland.
Buses service in Ilulissat
Tunumiit Inuit couple from Kulusuk
A bilingual sign in Nuuk, displaying the Danish and Kalaallisut for "Parking forbidden for all vehicles"
Ilimmarfik university Campus in Nuuk
Most Greenlandic villages, including Nanortalik, have their own church.
Nive Nielsen, Greenlandic singer and songwriter
Panel discussion with Greenlandic movie maker Inuk Silis Høegh at the launch of his movie about groundbreaking Greenlandic band Sumé
Teletaarnet Headquarters in Nuuk Greenland
Arctic television in Ilulissat

Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe (specifically Norway and Denmark, the colonial powers) for more than a millennium, beginning in 986.

Americas

1990s CIA political map of the Americas in Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection
America is named after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.
The Plaza Occidental in Copán, Honduras
Map of early human migrations based on the Out of Africa theory.
Statue representing the Americas at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta
Christopher Columbus leads expedition to the New World, 1492.
Map showing the dates of independence from European powers. Black signifies areas that are dependent territories or parts of countries with a capital outside the Americas.
Satellite photo of the Americas on Earth
Aconcagua, in Argentina, is the highest peak in the Americas
Climate zones of the Americas in the Köppen climate classification system.
Languages spoken in the Americas
Mexico City – Largest metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of 22,300,000 in 2017
São Paulo – Largest city in the Americas, with a population of 12,038,175 (city) in 2016
New York City – Largest urban area in the Americas, with a population of 18,351,295 in 2010

The Americas, which are sometimes collectively called America, are a landmass comprising the totality of North and South America.

Paleo-Indians

Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleo-Americans were the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.

Map of early human migrations based on the Out of Africa theory; figures are in thousands of years ago (kya)
The Mammut americanum (American mastodon) became extinct around 12,000–9,000 years ago due to human-related activities, climate change, or a combination of both. See Quaternary extinction event and Holocene extinction.
Folsom projectile point
Different types of Projectile points, from the Paleo-Indian periods in southeastern North America
Frequency distribution of haplogroup Q-M242.
Atlatl weights and carved stone gorgets from Poverty Point

From BCE ( BP), ice-free corridors developed along the Pacific coast and valleys of North America.

Norse colonization of North America

The Norse exploration of North America began in the late 10th century, when Norsemen explored areas of the North Atlantic colonizing Greenland and creating a short term settlement near the northern tip of Newfoundland.

A map of the Eastern Settlement on Greenland, covering approximately the modern municipality of Kujalleq. Eiriksfjord (Erik's fjord) and his farm Brattahlid are shown, as is the location of the bishopric at Gardar.
Map showing the extent of the Norse world
Map showing the expansion of the Thule people (900 to 1500)
Leif Erikson traveling to North America by Norwegian naturalist painter Christian Krohg (1893).
Graphical description of the different sailing routes to Greenland, Vinland (Newfoundland), Helluland, (Baffin Island) and Markland (Labrador) travelled by different characters in the Icelandic Sagas, mainly Saga of Eric the Red and Saga of the Greenlanders. Modern English versions of the Norse names.
Summer in the Greenland coast circa year 1000 by Jens Erik Carl Rasmussen (1841–1893)
The 1590 Skálholt Map showing Latinized Norse placenames in North America:
A reconstruction of Norse buildings at the UNESCO listed L'Anse aux Meadows site in Newfoundland, Canada. Archaeological evidence demonstrates that iron working, carpentry, and boat repair were conducted at the site.
The location of L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland
The Vinland map

The Norse exploration of North America has been subject to numerous controversies concerning the European exploration and Settlement of North America.

Europe

Continent, also recognised as a part of Eurasia, located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

Statue representing Europa at Palazzo Ferreria, in Valletta, Malta
First map of the world according to Anaximander (6th century BC)
A medieval T and O map printed by Günther Zainer in 1472, showing the three continents as domains of the sons of Noah — Asia to Sem (Shem), Europe to Iafeth (Japheth) and Africa to Cham (Ham)
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A New Map of Europe According to the Newest Observations (1721) by Hermann Moll draws the eastern boundary of Europe along the Don River flowing south-west and the Tobol, Irtysh and Ob rivers flowing north
1916 political map of Europe showing most of Moll's waterways replaced by von Strahlenberg's Ural Mountains and Freshfield's Caucasus Crest, land features of a type that normally defines a subcontinent
Paleolithic cave paintings from Lascaux in France ( 15,000 BCE)
Stonehenge in the United Kingdom (Late Neolithic from 3000 to 2000 BCE).
The Parthenon in Athens (432 BCE)
Animation showing the growth and division of the Roman Empire (years CE)
Viking raids and division of the Frankish Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843
The maritime republics of medieval Italy reestablished contacts between Europe, Asia and Africa with extensive trade networks and colonies across the Mediterranean, and had an essential role in the Crusades.
Tancred of Sicily and Philip II of France, during the Third Crusade (1189–1192)
The sacking of Suzdal by Batu Khan in 1238, during the Mongol invasion of Europe.
The School of Athens by Raphael (1511): Contemporaries, such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci (centre), are portrayed as classical scholars of the Renaissance.
Habsburg dominions in the centuries following their partition by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. The principal military base of Philip II in Europe was the Spanish road stretching from the Netherlands to the Duchy of Milan.
The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna
Marshall's Temple Works (1840), the Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain
Map of European colonial empires throughout the world in 1914.
Map depicting the military alliances of World War I in 1914–1918
Serbian war efforts (1914–1918) cost the country one quarter of its population.
Nazi Germany began a devastating World War II in Europe by its leader, Adolf Hitler. Here Hitler, on the right, with his closest ally, the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, in 1940
Bombed and burned-out buildings in Hamburg, 1944/45
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference in 1945; seated (from the left): Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
The Schuman Declaration led to the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. It began the integration process of the European Union (9 May 1950, at the French Foreign Ministry).
Flag of Europe, adopted by the Council of Europe in 1955 as the flag for the whole of Europe
Map of populous Europe and surrounding regions showing physical, political and population characteristics, as per 2018
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Europe.
The Volga, as seen in Yaroslavl. It flows from Central Russia and into the Caspian Sea and is the longest river in Europe.
Mount Elbrus in Southern Russia, is the highest mountain in Europe.
Europa Point as seen from the Strait of Gibraltar, which separates the continents of Europe and Africa, also being between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Danube, as seen in Đerdap National Park. It flows from the Black Forest and into the Black Sea and is the second-longest river in Europe, which also passes through the largest number of countries in the world at 10.
Sutjeska National Park contains Perućica, which is one of the last remaining primeval forests in Europe.
Land use map of Europe with arable farmland (yellow), forest (dark green), pasture (light green) and tundra, or bogs, in the north (dark yellow)
Floristic regions of Europe and neighbouring areas, according to Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch
Biogeographic regions of Europe and bordering regions
A brown bear near the Russian border in the forests of Kainuu, Finland
Once roaming the great temperate forests of Eurasia, European bison now live in nature preserves in Białowieża Forest, on the border between Poland and Belarus.
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Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
Eurozone (blue colour)
One of Kosovo's main economical sources is mining, because it has large reserves of lead, zinc, silver, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron and bauxite. Miners at the Trepča Mines in Mitrovica, Kosovo in 2011.
Population growth in and around Europe in 2021
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Map purportedly displaying the European continent split along cultural and state borders as proposed by the German organization Ständiger Ausschuss für geographische Namen (StAGN).
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Tallinn, the medieval capital of Estonia in the Baltic States, is a mixture of Western and Eastern architectural cultures.
Surficial geology of Europe

The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe.

Continent

Any of several large landmasses.

Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. Depending on the convention and model, some continents may be consolidated or subdivided: for example, Eurasia is most often subdivided into Asia and Europe (red shades), while North and South America are sometimes recognised as one American continent (green shades)
Map of island countries: these states are often grouped geographically with a neighbouring continental landmass
Reconstruction of the supercontinent Pangaea approximately 200 million years ago.
The Indian subcontinent
The Ancient Greek geographer Strabo holding a globe showing Europa and Asia
Medieval T and O map showing the three continents as domains of the sons of Noah—Asia to Sem (Shem), Europe to Iafeth (Japheth), and Africa to Cham (Ham).
Universalis Cosmographia, Waldseemüller's 1507 world map—the first to show the Americas separate from Asia
Hollandia Nova, 1659 map prepared by Joan Blaeu based on voyages by Abel Tasman and Willem Jansz, this image shows a French edition of 1663
Principal tectonic plates of the continents and the floor of the oceans

Ordered from largest in area to smallest, these seven regions are: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.

Central America

Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Belize are historically the seven nations in Central America politically, geographically and culturally.
The seven countries of Central America and their capitals
Central America geography
El Chorreron in El Salvador
One of the hanging bridges of the skywalk at the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Monteverde, Costa Rica disappearing into the clouds
Central America and the Caribbean Plate
Linguistic variations of classic Central American Spanish.
Central America map of indigenous people before European contact
Coat of Arms of the Central American Parliament
Federal Republic of Central America, 4 Escudos (1835). Struck in the San Jose, Costa Rica mint (697 were minted)
Secretariat of Central American Economic Integration
The Great Blue Hole off the coast of Belize is a prime ecotourism destination. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Semuc Champey, Guatemala.
The city rail in La Ceiba, Honduras is one of the few remaining passenger train services in Central America
Ancient footprints of Acahualinca, Nicaragua
Stone spheres of Costa Rica
Tazumal, El Salvador
Tikal, Guatemala
Copan, Honduras
Altun Ha, Belize
The United Provinces of Central America
Federal Republic of Central America
National Representation of Central America
Greater Republic of Central America
Guatemala
El Salvador
Honduras
Nicaragua
Costa Rica
Panama
Belize
Belize
Montecristo National Park, El Salvador
Maderas forest, Nicaragua
Texiguat Wildlife Refuge Honduras
Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica.
Parque Internacional la Amistad, Panama
Petén–Veracruz moist forests, Guatemala
Lycaste skinneri, Guatemala
Yucca gigantea, El Salvador
Rhyncholaelia digbyana, Honduras
Plumeria, Nicaragua
Guarianthe skinneri, Costa Rica
Peristeria elata, Panama
Prosthechea cochleata, Belize
Resplendent quetzal, Guatemala
Turquoise-browed motmot, El Salvador and Nicaragua
Keel-billed toucan, Belize
Scarlet macaw, Honduras
Clay-colored thrush, Costa Rica
Harpy eagle, Panama
Coatepeque Caldera, El Salvador
Lake Atitlán, Guatemala
Mombacho, Nicaragua
Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica
Guatemalan textiles
Mola (art form), Panama
El Salvador La Plama art form
Playa Blanca Guatemala
Jiquilisco Bay, El Salvador
Roatán, Honduras
Pink Pearl Island Nicaragua
Tamarindo, Costa Rica
Cayos Zapatilla, Panama
Corozal Beach, Belize

Central America (América Central or Centroamérica ) is a region of North America.

Northern America

Northern America is the northernmost subregion of North America.