North American English

North AmericanEnglishNorth Americain North AmericaUSAmerican or CanadianNorth American dialectsNorth American Standard EnglishNorth American usageNorth American-accented
North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada.wikipedia
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American English

EnglishAmericanEnglish-language
Because of their related histories and cultures and the similarities between the pronunciation, vocabulary, and accent of American English and Canadian English, the two spoken varieties are often grouped together under a single category.
Any American or Canadian accent perceived as free of noticeably local, ethnic, or cultural markers is popularly called "General" or "Standard" American, a fairly uniform accent continuum native to certain regions of the U.S. and associated nationally with broadcast mass media and highly educated speech.

Canadian English

EnglishCanadianCanada
Because of their related histories and cultures and the similarities between the pronunciation, vocabulary, and accent of American English and Canadian English, the two spoken varieties are often grouped together under a single category.
Phonologically, Canadian and American English are classified together as North American English, emphasizing the fact that the vast majority of outsiders, even other native English speakers, cannot distinguish the typical accents of the two countries by sound alone.

North American English regional phonology

American accentDialects of North American EnglishSoutheastern super-dialect region
There are a considerable number of different accents within the regions of both the United States and Canada, originally deriving from the accents prevalent in different English, Scottish and Irish regions of the British Isles and corresponding to settlement patterns of these peoples in the colonies.
North American English regional phonology is the study of variations in the pronunciation of spoken North American English (English of the United States and Canada)—what are commonly known simply as "regional accents".

Pacific Northwest English

Pacific NorthwestNorthwestlocal use
Pacific Northwest English (also known, in American linguistics, as Northwest English) is a variety of North American English spoken in the U.S. states of Washington and Oregon, sometimes also including Idaho and the Canadian province of British Columbia.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada.
The major native dialects of English are often divided by linguists into the two extremely general categories of British English (BrE) and North American English (NAE).

New York City English

New York accentNew York CityNew York English
The accent has a strong presence in media; pioneer variationist sociolinguist William Labov describes it as the most recognizable variety of North American English.

General American English

General AmericanGAstandard American accent
*General American
The 2006 Atlas of North American English surmises that "if one were to recognize a type of North American English to be called 'General American'" according to data measurements of vowel pronunciations, "it would be the configuration formed by these three" dialect regions: Canada, the American West, and the American Midland.

Flapping

intervocalic alveolar flappingflappedT- and D-flapping
A majority of North American English (for example, in contrast to British English) includes phonological features that concern consonants, such as rhoticity (full pronunciation of all sounds), conditioned T-glottalization (with satin pronounced, not ), T- and D-flapping (with metal and medal pronounced the same, as ), L-velarization (with filling pronounced, not ), as well as features that concern vowel sounds, such as various vowel mergers before (so that, Mary, marry, and merry are all commonly pronounced the same), raising of pre-voiceless (with price and bright using a higher vowel sound than prize and bride), the weak vowel merger (with affected and effected often pronounced the same), at least one of the vowel mergers (the – merger is completed among virtually all Americans and the – merger among nearly half, while both are completed among virtually all Canadians), and yod-dropping (with new pronounced, not ).
Flapping or tapping, also known as alveolar flapping, intervocalic flapping, or t-voicing, is a phonological process found in many varieties of English, especially North American, Australian and New Zealand English, whereby the voiceless alveolar stop consonant phoneme is pronounced as a voiced alveolar flap, a sound produced by briefly tapping the alveolar ridge with the tongue, when placed between vowels.

Rhoticity in English

non-rhoticrhoticnon-rhoticity
A majority of North American English (for example, in contrast to British English) includes phonological features that concern consonants, such as rhoticity (full pronunciation of all sounds), conditioned T-glottalization (with satin pronounced, not ), T- and D-flapping (with metal and medal pronounced the same, as ), L-velarization (with filling pronounced, not ), as well as features that concern vowel sounds, such as various vowel mergers before (so that, Mary, marry, and merry are all commonly pronounced the same), raising of pre-voiceless (with price and bright using a higher vowel sound than prize and bride), the weak vowel merger (with affected and effected often pronounced the same), at least one of the vowel mergers (the – merger is completed among virtually all Americans and the – merger among nearly half, while both are completed among virtually all Canadians), and yod-dropping (with new pronounced, not ).
]]Rhotic accents include most varieties of Scottish English, Irish or Hiberno-English, North American English, Barbadian English, Indian English, and Pakistani English.

Newfoundland English

NewfoundlanddialectNewfies
Similarly, the accents of Newfoundland have some similarities to the accents of Scotland and Ireland.

Cot–caught merger

cot-caught mergercot''–''caught'' mergercot–caught'' merger
A majority of North American English (for example, in contrast to British English) includes phonological features that concern consonants, such as rhoticity (full pronunciation of all sounds), conditioned T-glottalization (with satin pronounced, not ), T- and D-flapping (with metal and medal pronounced the same, as ), L-velarization (with filling pronounced, not ), as well as features that concern vowel sounds, such as various vowel mergers before (so that, Mary, marry, and merry are all commonly pronounced the same), raising of pre-voiceless (with price and bright using a higher vowel sound than prize and bride), the weak vowel merger (with affected and effected often pronounced the same), at least one of the vowel mergers (the – merger is completed among virtually all Americans and the – merger among nearly half, while both are completed among virtually all Canadians), and yod-dropping (with new pronounced, not ).

Phonological history of English close front vowels

weak vowel mergerpin–pen mergerhappy''-tensing
A majority of North American English (for example, in contrast to British English) includes phonological features that concern consonants, such as rhoticity (full pronunciation of all sounds), conditioned T-glottalization (with satin pronounced, not ), T- and D-flapping (with metal and medal pronounced the same, as ), L-velarization (with filling pronounced, not ), as well as features that concern vowel sounds, such as various vowel mergers before (so that, Mary, marry, and merry are all commonly pronounced the same), raising of pre-voiceless (with price and bright using a higher vowel sound than prize and bride), the weak vowel merger (with affected and effected often pronounced the same), at least one of the vowel mergers (the – merger is completed among virtually all Americans and the – merger among nearly half, while both are completed among virtually all Canadians), and yod-dropping (with new pronounced, not ).
Outside the South, the majority of North American English speakers maintain a clear distinction in perception and production.

Phonological history of English open back vowels

father–bother mergercot–caught mergerlot-cloth split
A majority of North American English (for example, in contrast to British English) includes phonological features that concern consonants, such as rhoticity (full pronunciation of all sounds), conditioned T-glottalization (with satin pronounced, not ), T- and D-flapping (with metal and medal pronounced the same, as ), L-velarization (with filling pronounced, not ), as well as features that concern vowel sounds, such as various vowel mergers before (so that, Mary, marry, and merry are all commonly pronounced the same), raising of pre-voiceless (with price and bright using a higher vowel sound than prize and bride), the weak vowel merger (with affected and effected often pronounced the same), at least one of the vowel mergers (the – merger is completed among virtually all Americans and the – merger among nearly half, while both are completed among virtually all Canadians), and yod-dropping (with new pronounced, not ).
However, the major exception to this is North American English, where the vowel is lengthened to merge with the vowel in palm, as described below.

English in the Commonwealth of Nations

Commonwealth EnglishCommonwealthCommonwealth Nations
Written English as used in the Commonwealth generally favours British spelling as opposed to American, with some exceptions in Canada, where there is a strong influence from neighbouring American English (collectively, the US and Canadian dialects form North American English).

Standard Canadian English

Standard CanadaWest/Central Canadian English
(Unmentioned below, Standard Canadian English is differentiated from Western U.S. English primarily by the Canadian Vowel Shift):
Like most other North American English dialects, Canadian English is almost always spoken with a rhotic accent, meaning that the r sound is preserved in any environment and not "dropped" after vowels, as commonly done by, for example, speakers in central and southern England where it is only pronounced when preceding a vowel.

Western American English

WestWesternWestern U.S. accents
(Unmentioned below, Standard Canadian English is differentiated from Western U.S. English primarily by the Canadian Vowel Shift):

North-Central American English

North Central American EnglishUpper MidwestMinnesota accent

Variety (linguistics)

varietiesvarietylect
North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
There are a considerable number of different accents within the regions of both the United States and Canada, originally deriving from the accents prevalent in different English, Scottish and Irish regions of the British Isles and corresponding to settlement patterns of these peoples in the colonies. North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada.

Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
There are a considerable number of different accents within the regions of both the United States and Canada, originally deriving from the accents prevalent in different English, Scottish and Irish regions of the British Isles and corresponding to settlement patterns of these peoples in the colonies. North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada.

United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
Canadian spellings are primarily based on British usage as a result of Canada's longer-standing connections with the United Kingdom.

Noah Webster

WebsterNoah Webster, Jr.American Spelling Book
Spellings in American English have been highly influenced by lexicographers like Noah Webster, who sought to create a standardized form of English that was independent of British English.