North Germanic languages

ScandinavianScandinavian languagesNorth GermanicNorth Germanic languageScandinavian languageNordic languagesWest ScandinavianNordicNorseEast Scandinavian
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.wikipedia
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Danish language

DanishDanish-languageDansk
The language group is also referred to as the "Nordic languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish scholars and laypeople.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog ) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

Faroese language

FaroeseFaeroeseOld Faroese
The language group is also referred to as the "Nordic languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish scholars and laypeople. In Scandinavia, the term "Scandinavian languages" refers specifically to the mutually intelligible modern languages of the three continental Scandinavian countries and is thus used in a more narrow sense as a subset of the Nordic languages, leaving aside the insular subset of Faroese and Icelandic.
Faroese ( or ; føroyskt mál, ) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 72,000 people, around 49,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 23,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.

Icelandic language

IcelandicModern IcelandicIceland
The language group is also referred to as the "Nordic languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish scholars and laypeople. In Scandinavia, the term "Scandinavian languages" refers specifically to the mutually intelligible modern languages of the three continental Scandinavian countries and is thus used in a more narrow sense as a subset of the Nordic languages, leaving aside the insular subset of Faroese and Icelandic.
Icelandic (íslenska ) is a North Germanic language spoken in Iceland.

Norwegian language

NorwegianNeutralNorwegian:
The language group is also referred to as the "Nordic languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish scholars and laypeople.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

Swedish language

SwedishSwedish-languageSwedish-speaking
The language group is also referred to as the "Nordic languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish scholars and laypeople. Elfdalian (Älvdalen speech), generally considered a Sveamål dialect, today has an official orthography and is, because of a lack of mutual intelligibility with Swedish, considered as a separate language by many linguists.
Swedish (svenska ) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
The largest North Germanic languages are Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, which are mutually intelligible and have a combined total of about 20 million native speakers in the Nordic countries and an additional five million second language speakers; since the middle ages these languages have however been strongly influenced by the West Germanic language Middle Low German, and Low German words account for about 30–60% of their vocabularies according to various estimates.

Scandinavia

Scandinavian countriesScandinavianNordic
In Scandinavia, the term "Scandinavian languages" refers specifically to the mutually intelligible modern languages of the three continental Scandinavian countries and is thus used in a more narrow sense as a subset of the Nordic languages, leaving aside the insular subset of Faroese and Icelandic.
The majority national languages of these three belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, and are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages.

Finland

FinnishFINRepublic of Finland
Approximately 20 million people in the Nordic countries speak a Scandinavian language as their native language, including an approximately 5% minority in Finland.
Finland's population is 5.52 million as of July 2019, the majority of whom live in the central and south of the country and speak Finnish, a Finnic language from the Uralic language family, unrelated to the Scandinavian languages.

Nordic countries

NordicNordic regionNordic country
Approximately 20 million people in the Nordic countries speak a Scandinavian language as their native language, including an approximately 5% minority in Finland.
The native languages Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese are all North Germanic languages rooted in Old Norse.

Swedish-speaking population of Finland

Swedish-speakingSwedish-speaking FinnsFinland-Swedish
Approximately 20 million people in the Nordic countries speak a Scandinavian language as their native language, including an approximately 5% minority in Finland.
They speak Finland Swedish, which encompasses both a standard language and distinct dialects that are mutually intelligible with the dialects spoken in Sweden and, to a lesser extent, other Scandinavian languages.

Scanian dialect

ScanianScanian dialectsSkånska
Scanian (skånska, skånsk) is a Scandinavian language spoken in the province of Scania in southern Sweden.

Dialect continuum

dialect clusterdialect chaincontinuum
The term "North Germanic languages" is used in comparative linguistics, whereas the term "Scandinavian languages" appears in studies of the modern standard languages and the dialect continuum of Scandinavia.
The Scandinavian languages, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, are often cited as examples.

Finland Swedish

SwedishFinland-SwedishSwedish language
Swedish in both its native and Finnish form are North Germanic, although pronunciations vary greatly from other Germanic languages due to the influence of Finnish phonology.

Proto-Germanic language

Proto-GermanicCommon GermanicGermanic
Dialects with the features assigned to the northern group formed from the Proto-Germanic language in the late Pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe.
Proto-Germanic developed from pre-Proto-Germanic into three branches during the first half of the first millennium of the Common Era: West Germanic, East Germanic and North Germanic, which however remained in contact over a considerable time, especially the Ingvaeonic languages (including English), which arose from West Germanic dialects and remained in continued contact with North Germanic.

West Germanic languages

West GermanicWest Germanic languageWest
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).

Norrland dialects

North SwedishAngermanlandicArchaic Norrlandic

Northwest Germanic

It does not challenge the late 19th-century tri-partite division of the Germanic dialects into North Germanic, West Germanic and East Germanic, but proposes additionally that North and West Germanic (i.e. all surviving Germanic languages today) remained as a subgroup after the southward migration of the East Germanic tribes, only splitting into North and West Germanic later.

Genetic relationship (linguistics)

genetic relationshipgeneticgenetically related
In scholarly literature in English, the term Scandinavian is also sometimes used synonymously with Nordic (North Germanic) languages when discussing the languages in a genetic perspective.
In a similar way, Danish, Swedish and Norwegian are genetically related through the North Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

Low German

Low SaxonPlattdeutschLow German language
Like Frisian, English, Dutch and the North Germanic languages, Low German has not undergone the High German consonant shift, as opposed to German, which is based upon High German dialects.

Elfdalian

Älvdalska ElfdalianDalacarlia dialects
Elfdalian (Älvdalen speech), generally considered a Sveamål dialect, today has an official orthography and is, because of a lack of mutual intelligibility with Swedish, considered as a separate language by many linguists.
Elfdalian belongs to the Northern branch/Upper Siljan branch of the Dalecarlian dialects or vernaculars, which in their turn evolved from Old Norse, from which Dalecarlian vernaculars might have split as early as in the eighth or ninth century, i.e., approximately when the North Germanic languages split into Western and Eastern branches.

Norn language

NornOld NornNorse
An additional language, known as Norn, developed on Orkney and Shetland after Vikings had settled there around 800, but this language became extinct around 1700.
Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken in the Northern Isles (Orkney and Shetland) off the north coast of mainland Scotland and in Caithness in the far north of the Scottish mainland.

Old Gutnish

Archaic GutnishGutnishvariety
The Old Gutnish dialect was spoken in Gotland and in various settlements in the East.
Old Gutnish or Old Gotlandic was a North Germanic language spoken on the Baltic island of Gotland.

Runes

runicrunerunic alphabet
The early development of this language branch is attested through runic inscriptions.
This period corresponds to the late Common Germanic stage linguistically, with a continuum of dialects not yet clearly separated into the three branches of later centuries: North Germanic, West Germanic, and East Germanic.

Normandy

NormanNormandy, FranceNormandie
Old Icelandic was essentially identical to Old Norwegian, and together they formed the Old West Norse dialect of Old Norse and were also spoken in settlements in Faroe Islands, Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man, and Norwegian settlements in Normandy.
Normandy (Normandie ; ; from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is the northwesternmost of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.