North Pole

NorthGeographic North Pole90PoleThe North PoleGeographic NorthNorth Polarpolar90°NGeographical North Pole
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.wikipedia
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South Pole

90Geographic South PoleSouth
The North Pole is the northernmost point on the Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole.
It is the southernmost point on the surface of Earth and lies on the opposite side of Earth from the North Pole.

Earth's rotation

rotation of the EarthrotationEarth rotates
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is the point in the Northern Hemisphere where Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.

Alert, Nunavut

AlertAlert, Ellesmere Island, Nunavutdied in a crash
The nearest permanently inhabited place is Alert in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada, which is located 817 km from the Pole.
Alert, in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada, is the northernmost permanently inhabited place in the world, at latitude 82°30'05" north, 817 km from the North Pole. The entire population of the census subdivision Baffin, Unorganized is located here. (Baffin Region is the Statistics Canada name for Qikiqtaaluk.) As of the 2016 census, the population was reported as 62, an increase of 57 over the 2011 census. It takes its name from, which wintered 10 km east of the present station, off what is now Cape Sheridan, in 1875–1876.

Arctic Ocean

ArcticArctic SeaArctic coast
While the South Pole lies on a continental land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean amid waters that are almost permanently covered with constantly shifting sea ice.
Located mostly in the Arctic north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere, besides its surrounding waters the Arctic Ocean is surrounded by Eurasia and North America.

USS Nautilus (SSN-571)

USS ''NautilusNautilusUSS ''Nautilus'' (SSN-571)
The sea depth at the North Pole has been measured at 4261 m by the Russian Mir submersible in 2007 and at 4,087 m by USS Nautilus in 1958.
USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine and the first submarine to complete a submerged transit of the North Pole on 3 August 1958.

Arktika 2007

High-Latitude Arctic Deep-Water Expedition20072007 Russian North Pole expedition
The sea depth at the North Pole has been measured at 4261 m by the Russian Mir submersible in 2007 and at 4,087 m by USS Nautilus in 1958.
Arktika 2007 (Российская полярная экспедиция "Арктика-2007") was a 2007 expedition in which Russia performed the first ever crewed descent to the ocean bottom at the North Pole, as part of research related to the 2001 Russian territorial claim, one of many territorial claims in the Arctic, made possible, in part, because of Arctic shrinkage.

Northern Hemisphere

NorthernNorth HemisphereNorthern Hemispheric
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
For other planets in the Solar System, north is defined as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earth's North Pole.

True north

northgeographic northtrue headings
It defines geodetic latitude 90° North, as well as the direction of true north.
True north (also called geodetic north) is the direction along Earth's surface towards the geographic North Pole or True North Pole.

Longitude

WestlongitudinalE
At the North Pole all directions point south; all lines of longitude converge there, so its longitude can be defined as any degree value.
(This forms a right-handed coordinate system with the z-axis (right hand thumb) pointing from the Earth's center toward the North Pole and the x-axis (right hand index finger) extending from the Earth's center through the Equator at the Prime Meridian.)

Kaffeklubben Island

The nearest land is usually said to be Kaffeklubben Island, off the northern coast of Greenland about 700 km away, though some perhaps semi-permanent gravel banks lie slightly closer.
Kaffeklubben Island is at 83.6625°N, -30.61389°W and is 713.5 km from the geographic North Pole.

Farthest North

a new recordnorthernmost point achieved by explorationprevious record
Attempts to reach the North Pole began in the late 19th century, with the record for "Farthest North" being surpassed on numerous occasions.
Farthest North describes the most northerly latitude reached by explorers before the conquest of the North Pole rendered the expression obsolete.

Robert Peary

Robert E. PearyPearyAdmiral Peary
Three prior expeditions – led by Frederick Cook (1908, land), Robert Peary (1909, land) and Richard E. Byrd (1926, aerial) – were once also accepted as having reached the Pole.
He is best known for claiming to have reached the geographic North Pole with his expedition on April 6, 1909.

Roald Amundsen

AmundsenAmundsen’sAmundsen Outpost
The first undisputed expedition to reach the North Pole was that of the airship Norge, which overflew the area in 1926 with 16 men on board, including expedition leader Roald Amundsen.
He led the first expedition proven to have reached the North Pole in a dirigible in 1926.

Richard E. Byrd

Byrd Antarctic ExpeditionRichard Evelyn ByrdRichard Byrd
Three prior expeditions – led by Frederick Cook (1908, land), Robert Peary (1909, land) and Richard E. Byrd (1926, aerial) – were once also accepted as having reached the Pole.
Byrd claimed that his expeditions had been the first to reach both the North Pole and the South Pole by air.

Frederick Cook

Frederick A. CookFrederick Albert CookCook
Three prior expeditions – led by Frederick Cook (1908, land), Robert Peary (1909, land) and Richard E. Byrd (1926, aerial) – were once also accepted as having reached the Pole.
Frederick Albert Cook (June 10, 1865 – August 5, 1940) was an American explorer, physician, and ethnographer who claimed to have reached the North Pole on April 21, 1908.

Norge (airship)

NorgeAirship Norgeairship ''Norge
The first undisputed expedition to reach the North Pole was that of the airship Norge, which overflew the area in 1926 with 16 men on board, including expedition leader Roald Amundsen.
The Norge was a semi-rigid Italian-built airship that carried out the first verified trip of any kind to the North Pole, an overflight on 12 May 1926.

Polaris expedition

Polaris'' expeditionArctic expeditionHall scientific expedition
In 1871 the Polaris expedition, a US attempt on the Pole led by Charles Francis Hall, ended in disaster.
The Polaris expedition of 1871–1873 was an American expedition that was one of the first serious attempts to reach the North Pole, after that of British naval officer Sir William Edward Parry, who reached 82° 45′ N in 1827.

Latitude

latitudesSouthlatitudinal
It defines geodetic latitude 90° North, as well as the direction of true north.
The Equator has a latitude of 0°, the North Pole has a latitude of 90° North (written 90° N or +90°), and the South Pole has a latitude of 90° South (written 90° S or −90°).

Open Polar Sea

ocean surrounding the North Pole was ice-freeopen water route
As early as the 16th century, many prominent people correctly believed that the North Pole was in a sea, which in the 19th century was called the Polynya or Open Polar Sea.
The Open Polar Sea was a hypothesized ice-free ocean surrounding the North Pole.

William Parry (explorer)

William Edward ParryWilliam ParryEdward Parry
One of the earliest expeditions to set out with the explicit intention of reaching the North Pole was that of British naval officer William Edward Parry, who in 1827 reached latitude 82°45′ North.
In 1827 he attempted one of the earliest expeditions to the North Pole.

Charles Francis Hall

Charles F. HallC. F. HallHall
In 1871 the Polaris expedition, a US attempt on the Pole led by Charles Francis Hall, ended in disaster.
1821 – November 8, 1871) was an American Arctic explorer, best known for the suspicious circumstances surrounding his death while leading the American-sponsored Polaris expedition in an attempt to be the first to reach the North Pole.

Drifting ice station

manned drifting ice stationdrift ice stationmanned drifting station
However, the Soviet Union, and later Russia, constructed a number of manned drifting stations on a generally annual basis since 1937, some of which have passed over or very close to the Pole.
North Pole-1 was established on May 21, 1937 some 20 km from the North Pole by the expedition into the high latitudes.

British Arctic Expedition

Alert and Discovery expeditionBritish Arctic Expedition of 1875-76expedition (1875-76)
Another British Royal Navy attempt on the pole, part of the British Arctic Expedition, by Commander Albert H. Markham reached a then-record 83°20'26" North in May 1876 before turning back. An 1879–1881 expedition commanded by US naval officer George W. DeLong ended tragically when their ship, the USS Jeanette, was crushed by ice. Over half the crew, including DeLong, were lost.
The British Arctic Expedition of 1875–1876, led by Sir George Strong Nares, was sent by the British Admiralty to attempt to reach the North Pole via Smith Sound.

Svalbard

SpitzbergenSvalbard ArchipelagoSpitsbergen
In 1897 Swedish engineer Salomon August Andrée and two companions tried to reach the North Pole in the hydrogen balloon Örnen ("Eagle"), but came down 300 km north of Kvitøya, the northeasternmost part of the Svalbard archipelago.
Situated north of mainland Europe, it is about midway between continental Norway and the North Pole.

Andrée's Arctic balloon expedition

S. A. Andrée's Arctic balloon expedition of 1897Arctic balloon expedition of 1897Arctic balloon expedition
In 1930 the remains of this expedition were found by the Norwegian Bratvaag Expedition.
Andrée's Arctic balloon expedition of 1897 was an effort to reach the North Pole in which all three expedition members perished.