A report on North Sea

Ocean currents mainly entering via the north entrance exiting along Norwegian coast
• Localization of the tide-gauges listed • Tide times after Bergen (negative = before) • The three amphidromic centers • Coasts: marshes = green mudflats = greenish blue  lagoons = bright blue  dunes = yellow  sea dikes= purple  moraines near the coast= light brown  rock-based coasts = greyish brown
The German North Sea coast
The Afsluitdijk (Closure-dike) is a major dam in the Netherlands
Zuid-Beveland, North Sea flood of 1953
Pacific oysters, blue mussels and cockles in the Wadden Sea in the Netherlands
European seagull on the coast of North Sea
A female bottlenose dolphin with her young in Moray Firth, Scotland
Phytoplankton bloom in the North Sea
Painting of the Four Days' Battle of 1666 by Willem van de Velde the Younger
German cruiser SMS Blücher sinks in the Battle of Dogger Bank on 25 January 1915.
The exclusive economic zones in the North Sea
Oil platform Statfjord A with the flotel Polymarine
A trawler in Nordstrand, Germany
Unpolished amber stones, in varying hues
The beach in Scheveningen, Netherlands in c. 1900
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Map showing hypothetical extent of Doggerland (c. 8,000 BC), which provided a land bridge between Great Britain and continental Europe
North Sea from De Koog, Texel island
The North Sea between {{ma|34}} and {{ma|28}}, as Central Europe became dry land
thumb|A 1482 recreation of a map from Ptolemy's Geography showing the "Oceanus Germanicus"
thumb|Edmond Halley's solar eclipse 1715 map showing The German Sea

Sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Great Britain, Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France.

- North Sea

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Netherlands

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Country located in Northwestern Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean.

Country located in Northwestern Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean.

The name of the historic County of Holland is currently used as a pars pro toto for the Netherlands.
Oak figurine found in Willemstad (4500 BC)
The Rhine frontier around 70 AD
Franks, Frisians and Saxons (710s AD) with Traiecturm and Dorestad in the middle
Frankish expansion (481 to 870 AD)
Rorik of Dorestad, Viking ruler of Friesland (romantic 1912 depiction)
A Medieval Tombe of the Brabantian knight Arnold van der Sluijs
Map of the Habsburg dominions. From 1556 the dynasty's lands in the Low Countries were retained by the Spanish Habsburgs.
The Spanish Fury at Maastricht, 1579
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
Winter landscape with skaters near the city of Kampen by Hendrick Avercamp (1620s)
Amsterdam's Dam Square in 1656
Map of the Dutch colonial empire. Light green: territories administered by or originating from territories administered by the Dutch East India Company; dark green: the Dutch West India Company. In yellow are the territories occupied later, during the 19th century.
The submission of Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830. Painting by Nicolaas Pieneman
Rotterdam after German air raids in 1940
Former Prime Ministers Wim Kok, Dries van Agt, Piet de Jong, Ruud Lubbers and Jan Peter Balkenende with Prime Minister Mark Rutte, in 2011
Relief map of the European Netherlands
The Christmas flood of 1717 was the result of a northwesterly storm that resulted in the death of thousands.
Map illustrating areas of the Netherlands below sea level
A polder at 5.53 metres below sea level
The Delta Works are located in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland.
Common seals on Terschelling, a Wadden Sea island
Underwater life of Klein Bonaire
The Binnenhof, where the lower and upper houses of the States General meet
De Wallen, Amsterdam's red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffeeshops that sell marijuana, symbolising the Dutch political culture and tradition of tolerance.
The Netherlands has a culture of respectful and friendly debate. From left to right, members of the House of Representatives Sander de Rouwe (CDA), Ineke van Gent (GL), Han ten Broeke (VVD), Kees Verhoeven (D66) and Farshad Bashir (SP), 2010
Provinces and territories of the Netherlands
The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis), in The Hague
General Onno Eichelsheim is the current Chief of Defence.
Zr. Ms. Holland, a Royal Netherlands Navy offshore patrol vessel
Historical GDP per capita development (Our World in Data)
A proportional representation of Netherlands exports, 2019
The Netherlands is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue), and the EU single market.
Natural gas concessions in the Netherlands. Today the Netherlands accounts for more than 25% of all natural gas reserves in the EU.
The Groningen gas field whose discovery in 1959 transformed the Dutch economy, generating €159 billion in revenue since the mid-1970s.
Cows near the city of Arnhem
Population of the Netherlands from 1900 to 2000
Population pyramid of the Netherlands in 2017
In Rotterdam almost half the population has an immigrant background.
Population density in the Netherlands by municipality. The largest urban area, the Randstad is clearly visible along the west coast.
Knowledge of foreign languages in the Netherlands, in per cent of the population over the age of 15, in 2006
An international primary school in The Hague
View on the Utrecht Science Park of Utrecht University. The building in the centre is the library.
Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), known as "the father of microbiology"
A public hospital in Amersfoort
A1 motorway, in Gelderland
A regional train operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS)
Bike passage at Rotterdam Centraal station
Some symbols and icons of Dutch culture
Carnival in North Brabant and Limburg
Dutch people in orange celebrating King's Day in Amsterdam, 2017
Pop singer Anouk in 2013
Johan Cruyff Arena, the largest Dutch concert venue
Dutch star football players Arjen Robben and Robin van Persie during a game with the Netherlands against Denmark at Euro 2012
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.
Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Indian Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)
A Dutch doctor vaccinating Indonesian patients

The Netherlands consists of twelve provinces; it borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, with a North Sea coastline to the north and west.

Map of the Baltic Sea region

Baltic Sea

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Arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain.

Arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain.

Map of the Baltic Sea region
Danish Straits and southwestern Baltic Sea
Åland between Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia
Cape Arkona on the island of Rügen in Germany, was a sacred site of the Rani tribe before Christianization.
Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League (Hanse).
In 1649 the settlement of the Latvian-speaking Kursenieki spanned from Klaipėda to Gdańsk along the coast of the Baltic Sea.
The naval Battle of the Sound took place on 8 November 1658 during the Dano-Swedish War.
The burning Cap Arcona shortly after the attacks, 3 May 1945. Only 350 survived of the 4,500 prisoners who had been aboard
Baltic drainage basins (catchment area), with depth, elevation, major rivers and lakes
Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Regions and basins of the Baltic Sea: 
1 = Bothnian Bay
2 = Bothnian Sea
1 + 2 = Gulf of Bothnia, partly also 3 & 4
3 = Archipelago Sea
4 = Åland Sea
5 = Gulf of Finland
6 = Northern Baltic Proper
7 = Western Gotland Basin
8 = Eastern Gotland Basin
9 = Gulf of Riga
10 = Bay of Gdańsk/Gdansk Basin
11 = Bornholm Basin and Hanö Bight
12 = Arkona Basin 6–12 = Baltic Proper
13 = Kattegat, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
14 = Belt Sea (Little Belt and Great Belt)
15 = Öresund (The Sound) 14 + 15 = Danish Straits, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
Satellite image of the Baltic Sea in a mild winter
Traversing Baltic Sea and ice
On particularly cold winters, the coastal parts of the Baltic Sea freeze into ice thick enough to walk or ski on.
Piles of drift ice on the shore of Puhtulaid, near Virtsu, Estonia, in late April
Depths of the Baltic Sea in meters
Baltic Sea near Klaipėda (Karklė).
Skerries form an integral and typical part of many of the archipelagos of the Baltic Sea, such as these in the archipelago of Åland, Finland.
Stockholm archipelago
Aerial view of Bornholm, Denmark
Population density in the Baltic Sea catchment area
Vasilyevsky Island in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Stockholm in Sweden
Riga in Latvia
Helsinki in Finland
Gdańsk in Poland
Tallinn in Estonia
Satellite photo of the Baltic Sea surrounding Gotland, Sweden, with algae bloom (phytoplankton) swirling in the water
Pedestrian pier in Sellin, Germany
Svetlogorsk resort town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Mrzeżyno beach in Poland

The Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea-Baltic Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal.

Extent of the Atlantic Ocean according to the 2002 IHO definition, excluding Arctic and Antarctic regions

Atlantic Ocean

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Second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of about 106460000 km2.

Second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of about 106460000 km2.

Extent of the Atlantic Ocean according to the 2002 IHO definition, excluding Arctic and Antarctic regions
The Aethiopian Ocean in a 1710 French map of Africa
False color map of ocean depth in the Atlantic basin
As the Gulf Stream meanders across the North Atlantic from the North American east coast to Western Europe its temperature drops by 20 C-change.
Path of the thermohaline circulation. Purple paths represent deep-water currents, while blue paths represent surface currents.
In the subpolar gyre of the North Atlantic warm subtropical waters are transformed into colder subpolar and polar waters. In the Labrador Sea this water flows back to the subtropical gyre.
Approximate extent of the Sargasso Sea
Sargassum fish (Histrio histrio)
Waves in the trade winds in the Atlantic Ocean—areas of converging winds that move along the same track as the prevailing wind—create instabilities in the atmosphere that may lead to the formation of hurricanes.
Tropical wet and dry climate in San Andrés Island Caribbean, Colombia
Iceberg A22A in the South Atlantic Ocean
Excavation of the Ertebølle middens in 1880
Based on the medieval Íslendingasögur sagas, including the Grœnlendinga saga, this interpretative map of the "Norse World" shows that Norse knowledge of the Americas and the Atlantic remained limited.
The Atlantic Gyres influenced the Portuguese discoveries and trading port routes, here shown in the India Run ("Carreira da Índia"), which would be developed in subsequent years.
Embarked and disembarked slaves in the Atlantic slave trade 1525–1863 (first and last slave voyages)
Cod fishery in Norway
Banks of the North-East Atlantic
Banks of the North-West Atlantic
Capture of Atlantic north-west cod in million tons
Bahama Banks
Agulhas Bank
Marine debris strewn over the beaches of the South Atlantic Inaccessible Island

These include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost all of the Scotia Sea, and other tributary water bodies.

English Channel

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Osborne House, the summer retreat of Queen Victoria on the Isle of Wight. Starting from the late 18th century, settlements on and around the English Channel coastline in England grew rapidly into thriving seaside resorts, bolstered by their association with royalty and the middle and upper classes.
Map of the channel area with French nomenclature
Map of the English Channel
The Strait of Dover viewed from France, looking towards England. The white cliffs of Dover on the English coast are visible from France on a clear day.
Three French river mouths. Top to bottom: the Somme, the Authie and the Canche
Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum ca. 20,000 years ago
The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century around the North Sea. The red area is the distribution of the dialect Old West Norse, the orange area Old East Norse, and the green area the other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility.
The Hermitage of St Helier lies in the bay off Saint Helier and is accessible on foot at low tide.
Landing in England scene from the Bayeux Tapestry, depicting ships coming in and horses landing
The Spanish Armada off the English coast in 1588
The Battle of Quiberon Bay which ended the French invasion plans in 1759
British radar facilities during the Battle of Britain 1940
150 mm Second World War German gun emplacement in Normandy
As part of the Atlantic Wall, between 1940 and 1945 the occupying German forces and the Organisation Todt constructed fortifications round the coasts of the Channel Islands, such as this observation tower at Les Landes, Jersey.
The Spinnaker (observation) Tower, Portsmouth Harbour
The walled city of Saint-Malo was a stronghold of corsairs.
Kelham's Dictionary of the Norman or Old French Language (1779), defining Law French, a language historically used in English law courts
The beach of Le Havre and a part of the rebuilt city
Automatic identification system display showing traffic in the Channel in 2006
The Mont Saint-Michel is one of the most visited and recognisable landmarks on the English Channel.
Zapata on his Flyboard Air.

The English Channel (French: la Manche, Breton: Mor Breizh, Cornish: Mor Bretannek), also called simply the Channel, is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates Southern England from northern France and links to the southern part of the North Sea by the Strait of Dover at its northeastern end.

Germany

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Country in Central Europe.

Country in Central Europe.

The Kingdom of East Francia in 843
Martin Luther (1483–1546), Protestant Reformer
The German Confederation in 1815
Adolf Hitler, dictator of Nazi Germany (1933–1945)
German-occupied Europe in 1942 during World War II
American, Soviet, British, and French occupation zones in Germany and the French-controlled Saar Protectorate, 1947. Territories east of the Oder-Neisse line were transferred to Poland and the Soviet Union under the terms of the Potsdam Conference.
The Berlin Wall during its fall in 1989, with the Brandenburg Gate in the background
Physical map of Germany
Berchtesgaden National Park
German TPz Fuchs armoured personnel carrier
Frankfurt is a leading business centre in Europe and the seat of the European Central Bank.
An ICE 3 on the Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line
Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria
Cologne Cathedral is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Heidelberg University is Germany's oldest institution of higher learning and generally counted among its most renowned.
The Hospital of the Holy Spirit in Lübeck, established in 1286, is a precursor to modern hospitals.
A typical German Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) in Dresden
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827), composer
The Brothers Grimm collected and published popular German folk tales.
Babelsberg Studio in Potsdam near Berlin, the world's first large-scale film studio
Bavarian Bratwurst with mustard, a pretzel and beer
The German national football team after winning the FIFA World Cup for the fourth time in 2014. Football is the most popular sport in Germany.
Germany hosted the 2022 G7 summit at Schloss Elmau, Bavaria.

Germany is situated between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south; it covers an area of 357022 km2, with a population of over 83 million within its 16 constituent states.

Hanseatic League

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Medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Central and Northern Europe.

Medieval commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Central and Northern Europe.

The Hanseatic League was a powerful economic and defensive alliance that left a great cultural and architectural heritage. It is especially renowned for its Brick Gothic monuments, such as Stralsund's St. Nikolai Church and its City Hall, shown here. UNESCO lists the old town of Stralsund, together with Wismar, as a World Heritage Site.
Foundation of the alliance between Lübeck and Hamburg
Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League
Town Hall of Reval (now Tallinn, Estonia)
Stargard Mill Gate, Pomerania, today in Poland
Georg Giese from Danzig, 34-year-old German Hanseatic merchant at the Steelyard, painted in London by Hans Holbein
View of the in the port city of Gdańsk (Danzig), today in Poland
Hanseatic museum in Bergen, Norway
Heinrich Sudermann
Modern, faithful painting of the Adler von Lübeck – the world's largest ship in its time
Hanseatic Seal of Elbing (now Elbląg)
Hanseatic Seal of Stralsund
Map of the Hanseatic League, showing principal Hanseatic cities
The Oostershuis, a kontor in Antwerp
The Hanseatic Warehouse in King's Lynn is the only surviving League building in England
Europe in 1097
Europe in 1430
Europe in 1470
Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539)

During the peak of its power, the Hanseatic League had a virtual monopoly over maritime trade in the North and Baltic seas.

The Oslofjord inlet near Oslo is part of the Skagerrak strait.

Skagerrak

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The Oslofjord inlet near Oslo is part of the Skagerrak strait.
German bunkers from World War II are still present along the coasts of Skagerrak. (Kjærsgård Strand in Denmark)
A cargo ship on Skagerrak.
A cold water coral reef in Norway.

The Skagerrak is a strait running between the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, the southeast coast of Norway and the west coast of Sweden, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat sea area through the Danish Straits to the Baltic Sea.

Greek geographer, Pytheas of Massalia

Great Britain

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Island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

Island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

Greek geographer, Pytheas of Massalia
A 1490 Italian reconstruction of the relevant map of Ptolemy who combined the lines of roads and of the coasting expeditions during the first century of Roman occupation. Two great faults, however, are an eastward-projecting Scotland and none of Ireland seen to be at the same latitude of Wales, which may have been if Ptolemy used Pytheas' measurements of latitude. Whether he did so is a much debated issue. This "copy" appears in blue below.
Political definition of Great Britain ( dark green ) – in Europe ( green & dark grey ) – in the United Kingdom ( green )
Prima Europe tabula. A "copy" of Ptolemy's 2nd-century map of Roman Britain. See notes to image above.
View of Britain's coast from Cap Gris-Nez in northern France
The robin is popularly known as "Britain's favourite bird".
Heather growing wild in the Highlands at Dornoch.
Canterbury Cathedral, seat of the Church of England – the island's largest denomination
Glasgow Cathedral, a meeting place of the Church of Scotland

Great Britain lies on the European continental shelf, part of the Eurasian Plate and off the north-west coast of continental Europe, separated from this European mainland by the North Sea and by the English Channel, which narrows to 34 km at the Straits of Dover.

Shetland

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Subarctic archipelago in the Northern Atlantic, between Great Britain, the Faroe Islands and Norway.

Subarctic archipelago in the Northern Atlantic, between Great Britain, the Faroe Islands and Norway.

Shetland geological map
Lerwick is Shetland's largest settlement
Mainland, Shetland
Unst
The preserved ruins of a wheelhouse and broch at Jarlshof, described as "one of the most remarkable archaeological sites ever excavated in the British Isles".
Shetland (boxed) in relation to surrounding territories including Norway (to the east), the Faroe Islands (to the north west), and Orkney and the rest of the British Isles (to the south west).
14th-century Flateyjarbók image of Harald Fairhair (right, with fair hair), who took control of Hjaltland c. 875.
James III and Margaret of Denmark, whose betrothal led to Shetland passing from Norway to Scotland.
Full-rigged ship Maella, of Oslo, in Bressay Sound, around 1922
County Buildings in Lerwick, the former headquarters of Zetland County Council
Leif "Shetland" Larsen, Norwegian leader of the Shetland Bus operations in World War II, the most highly decorated allied naval officer of the war.
More than half of the Shetland catch by weight and value is mackerel.
Apache Corporation's Beryl alpha oil platform in the East Shetland Basin
Shetland
Loganair aircraft in Fair Isle, midway between Orkney and Shetland
Haroldswick Methodist Church, the most northerly church building in the United Kingdom
Victoria pier, Lerwick. The replica Viking longboat Dim Riv is bottom left and the town hall is on the hill. Taken from the Aberdeen ferry in Bressay Sound.
The Shetland Crofthouse museum
The Lerwick Up Helly Aa
Shetland mouse-ear (Cerastium nigrescens), on the Keen of Hamar reserve, Unst.
Atlantic puffin in the Shetland Islands
Shetland ponies
Detailed map of Shetland

They form part of the border between the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the North Sea to the east.

Belgium

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Country in Northwestern Europe.

Country in Northwestern Europe.

Gallia Belgica at the time of Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul in 54 BCE
The Burgundian State of Charles the Bold in the 15th century
Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Gustaf Wappers, 1834
Cheering crowds greet British troops entering Brussels, 4 September 1944
Relief map of Belgium
Chart illustrating the federal government construction of Belgium
The Belgian Federal Parliament in Brussels, one of six different governments of the country
Regions:
A proportional representation of Belgium exports, 2019
Steelmaking along the Meuse at Ougrée, near Liège
Port of Zeebrugge
Gerardus Mercator
Population density in Belgium by arrondissement.
Brussels, the capital city and largest metropolitan area of Belgium
Bilingual signs in Brussels
National Basilica of the Sacred Heart in Koekelberg, Brussels
Interior of the Great Synagogue of Brussels
The Great Mosque of Brussels
University Hospital of Antwerp
The Central Library of the KU Leuven University
The Ghent Altarpiece: The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb (interior view), painted 1432 by van Eyck
Jacques Brel
The Gilles of Binche, in costume, wearing wax masks
Moules-frites or mosselen met friet is a representative dish of Belgium.
Eddy Merckx, regarded as one of the greatest cyclists of all time
The Berlaymont building in Brussels, seat of the European Commission

The country is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, and the North Sea to the northwest.