Northern California

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Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California.wikipedia
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San Jose, California

San JoseSan Jose, CASan José
Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties, its main population centers include the San Francisco Bay Area (anchored by the cities of San Jose, San Francisco, and Oakland), the Greater Sacramento area (anchored by the state capital Sacramento), and the Metropolitan Fresno area (anchored by the city of Fresno).
San Jose, officially the City of San José, is the economic, cultural and political center of Silicon Valley, and the largest city in Northern California (both by population and area).

San Francisco Bay Area

Bay AreaSan FranciscoBay Area, California
Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties, its main population centers include the San Francisco Bay Area (anchored by the cities of San Jose, San Francisco, and Oakland), the Greater Sacramento area (anchored by the state capital Sacramento), and the Metropolitan Fresno area (anchored by the city of Fresno).
The San Francisco Bay Area (popularly referred to as the Bay Area) is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo, and Suisun Bay estuaries in Northern California.

Northern California Megaregion

Northern California
The 48-county definition is not used for the Northern California Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States.
The Northern California Megaregion (also Northern California Megalopolis), distinct from Northern California, is an urbanized region of California consisting of many large cities including San Francisco, San Jose, Sacramento, and Oakland.

Cascade Range

CascadesCascade MountainsCascade
Northern California also contains redwood forests, along with the Sierra Nevada, including Yosemite Valley and part of Lake Tahoe, Mount Shasta (the second-highest peak in the Cascade Range after Mount Rainier in Washington), and most of the Central Valley, one of the world's most productive agricultural regions.
The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California.

Metropolitan Fresno

Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical AreaCombined Statistical AreaFresno
Spanning the state's northernmost 48 counties, its main population centers include the San Francisco Bay Area (anchored by the cities of San Jose, San Francisco, and Oakland), the Greater Sacramento area (anchored by the state capital Sacramento), and the Metropolitan Fresno area (anchored by the city of Fresno).
It is the third-largest metropolitan region in Northern California, behind the Bay Area and Greater Sacramento.

San Joaquin Valley

San JoaquinSan Joaquin Valley (North)San Joaquin Valley, California
For example, the Central Valley is a region that is distinct both culturally and topographically from coastal California, though in northern versus southern California divisions, the Sacramento Valley and most of the San Joaquin Valley are usually placed in northern California.
It comprises seven counties of Northern and one of Southern California, including, in the north, all of San Joaquin and Kings counties, most of Stanislaus, Merced, and Fresno counties, and parts of Madera and Tulare counties, along with a majority of Kern County, in Southern California.

Partition and secession in California

California National PartySplitting California1859 Pico Act
Extreme northern residents have felt under-represented in state government and in 1941 attempted to form a new state with southwestern Oregon to be called Jefferson, or more recently to introduce legislation to split California into two or three states.
In addition, there have been some calls for the secession of multiple states or large regions in the American West (such as the proposal of Cascadia) which often include parts of Northern California.

Sacramento Valley

SacramentoSacramento Regioncentral valley
For example, the Central Valley is a region that is distinct both culturally and topographically from coastal California, though in northern versus southern California divisions, the Sacramento Valley and most of the San Joaquin Valley are usually placed in northern California.
It encompasses all or parts of ten Northern California counties.

Miwok

Miwok peopleCoast MiwokMe-wuk
Inhabited for millennia by Native Americans, from the Shasta tribe in the north, to the Miwoks in the central coast and Sierra Nevada, to the Yokuts of the southern Central Valley, northern California was among the most densely populated areas of pre-Columbian North America.
The Miwok (also spelled Miwuk, Mi-Wuk, or Me-Wuk) are members of four linguistically related Native American groups indigenous to what is now Northern California, who traditionally spoke one of the Miwok languages in the Utian family.

California

CAState of CaliforniaCalifornia, USA
Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California.
California is often geographically bisected into two regions, Southern California, comprising the 10 southernmost counties, and Northern California, comprising the 48 northernmost counties.

California wine

CaliforniaCalifornianCalifornian wine
Cultural contributions include the works of Ansel Adams, George Lucas, and Clint Eastwood, as well as beatniks, the Summer of Love, winemaking, the cradle of the international environmental movement, and the open, casual workplace first popularized in the Silicon Valley dot-com boom and now widely in use around the world.
The newly growing wine industry took hold in Northern California around the counties of Sonoma and Napa.

Pacific Northwest

northwestNorthwest CoastPacific Northwest Coast
A network of railroads spread throughout northern California, and in 1887, a rail link was completed to the Pacific Northwest.
Broader conceptions reach north into Southeast Alaska and Yukon, south into northern California, and east to the Continental Divide to include Western Montana and parts of Wyoming.

Silicon Valley

Silicon Valley, CaliforniaSan JoseSan Francisco Bay Area technology industry
Its economy is diverse, though more concentrated in high technology, and subject to the whims of venture capital than any other major regional economy in the nation especially within Silicon Valley, and less dependent on oil and residential housing than Southern California.
Silicon Valley is a region in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology, innovation, and social media.

Oregon

ORState of OregonOregon, USA
The first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish Crown; in 1542, Cabrillo's expedition sailed perhaps as far north as the Rogue River in today's Oregon.
The state's southwestern portion, particularly the Rogue Valley, has a Mediterranean climate with drier and sunnier winters and hotter summers, similar to Northern California.

Rogue River (Oregon)

Rogue RiverRogueRogue River Valley
The first European to explore the coast was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing for the Spanish Crown; in 1542, Cabrillo's expedition sailed perhaps as far north as the Rogue River in today's Oregon.
Draining 5156 mi2, the Rogue River watershed covers parts of Jackson, Josephine, Curry, Douglas, and Klamath counties in southwestern Oregon and Siskiyou and Del Norte counties in northern California.

Lassen Volcanic National Park

Lassen National ParkLassen VolcanicLassen Volcanic Park
Other prominent parks are the Kings Canyon-Sequoia National Park complex, Redwood National Park, Pinnacles National Park, Lassen Volcanic National Park and the largest in the contiguous forty-eight states, Death Valley National Park.
The source of heat for the volcanism in the Lassen area is subduction of the Gorda Plate diving below the North American Plate off the Northern California coast.

California Gold Rush

Gold RushForty-niners49er
Since the events of the California Gold Rush, Northern California has been a leader on the world's economic, scientific, and cultural stages.
The first people to rush to the goldfields, beginning in the spring of 1848, were the residents of California themselves—primarily agriculturally oriented Americans and Europeans living in Northern California, along with Native Americans and some Californios (Spanish-speaking Californians).

Sacramento River

SacramentoBonaventura Riverriver
The Sacramento River (Río Sacramento) is the principal river of Northern California in the United States, and is the largest river in California.

Chico, California

ChicoChico, CACity of Chico
Key cities in the region which are not in major metropolitan areas include Eureka on the far North Coast, Redding, at the northern end of the Central Valley, Chico, and Yuba City in the mid-north of the Central Valley, as well as Fresno and Visalia on the southern end.
In the works for more than 10 years, the Gateway Science Museum is the leading center for science education and Northern California's local history, natural resources, seacoast, Sacramento Valley, and surrounding foothills and mountains.

Hudson's Bay Company

Hudson’s Bay CompanyHBCHudson Bay Company
In 1825, the Hudson's Bay Company established a major trading post just north of today's Portland, Oregon.
During the 1820s and 1830s, HBC trappers were deeply involved in the early exploration and development of Northern California.

University of California, Merced

UC MercedMercedUniversity of California Merced
Most UC Merced students are from California with enrollment nearly evenly divided among Southern California, the Central Valley, and Northern California.

Southern California

southernSoCalCalifornia
Its economy is diverse, though more concentrated in high technology, and subject to the whims of venture capital than any other major regional economy in the nation especially within Silicon Valley, and less dependent on oil and residential housing than Southern California.

Spanish missions in California

California missionsmissionsSpanish missions
In 1770, the Spanish mission at Monterey was the first European settlement in the area, followed by other missions along the coast—eventually extending as far north as Sonoma County.
By 1819, Spain decided to limit its "reach" in the New World to Northern California due to the costs involved in sustaining these remote outposts; the northernmost settlement therefore is Mission San Francisco Solano, founded in Sonoma in 1823.

Calaveras County, California

Calaveras CountyCalaverasCalaveras Counties
Calaveras County, officially the County of Calaveras, is a county in the northern portion of the U.S. state, California.

Fresno County, California

Fresno CountyFresnoFresno Counties
Fresno County, officially the County of Fresno, is a county located in the central portion of the U.S. state of California.