Northern Ireland

Northern IrishIrishNIRUlsterIrelandNorthNorthern IrishmanNINorthernGeography of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann ; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is variously described as a country, province or region which is part of the United Kingdom.wikipedia
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United Kingdom

BritishUKBritain
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann ; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is variously described as a country, province or region which is part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland.

Republic of Ireland

IrelandIrishRepublic
Located in the northeast of the island of Ireland, Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland.
The sovereign state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom.

Ireland

IrishIRLisland of Ireland
Located in the northeast of the island of Ireland, Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland.
Geopolitically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland (officially named Ireland), which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom.

Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border

Irish borderborderthe border
Located in the northeast of the island of Ireland, Northern Ireland shares a border to the south and west with the Republic of Ireland.
The Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border, sometimes referred to as the Irish border, runs for 499 km from Lough Foyle in the north of Ireland to Carlingford Lough in the northeast, separating the Republic of Ireland from Northern Ireland.

Renewable Heat Incentive scandal

2017controversial Renewable Heat Incentive schemeRenewable Heat Incentive
, Northern Ireland has been without a government since the Executive of the 5th Northern Ireland Assembly collapsed in January 2017, following the Renewable Heat Incentive scandal.
The Renewable Heat Incentive scandal (RHI scandal), also referred to as RHIgate and the Cash for Ash scandal, is a political scandal in Northern Ireland that centres on a failed renewable energy (wood pellet burning) incentive scheme that has been reported to potentially cost the public purse almost £500 million.

Northern Ireland Assembly

AssemblyChairpersonNorthern Irish Assembly
Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly (colloquially referred to as Stormont after its location) holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government.
The Northern Ireland Assembly (Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlan Assemblie), commonly referred to in the UK and Ireland simply as Stormont (and incorrectly as Stormont Castle), is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland.

Partition of Ireland

partitionpartitionedpartitioned Ireland
Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920.
The smaller of the two, Northern Ireland, was duly created with a devolved administration and forms part of the United Kingdom today, but the larger one, intended as a home rule jurisdiction to be known as Southern Ireland, failed to gain acceptance.

Demography of the United Kingdom

Demographics of the United KingdomUK populationUnited Kingdom
In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population.
Its overall population density is 259 people per square kilometre (671 people per sq mi), with England having a significantly higher population density than Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

Ulster

province of UlsterUlstermanMid-Ulster
Today, the former generally see themselves as British and the latter generally see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned.
It is made up of nine counties: six of these constitute Northern Ireland (a part of the United Kingdom); the remaining three are in the Republic of Ireland.

United Ireland

Irish reunificationIrish unityIrish unification
However, a significant minority, mostly Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule.
At present, the island is divided politically; the sovereign Republic of Ireland has jurisdiction over the majority of Ireland, while Northern Ireland is part of the United Kingdom.

The Troubles

TroublesNorthern Ireland conflictNorthern Ireland
In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, and chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and injured over 50,000 others.
The Troubles (Na Trioblóidí) was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.

Government of Ireland Act 1920

Government of Ireland ActGovernment of Ireland BillFourth Home Rule Bill
Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920.
The Act was intended to establish separate Home Rule institutions within two new subdivisions of Ireland: the six north-eastern counties were to form "Northern Ireland", while the larger part of the country was to form "Southern Ireland".

Economy of Northern Ireland

Northern IrelandNorthern Ireland economyNorthern Irish economy
Northern Ireland was the most industrialised region of Ireland, declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, and growing significantly since the late 1990s.
Northern Ireland previously had a traditionally industrial economy, most notably in shipbuilding, rope manufacture and textiles, but most heavy industry has since been replaced by services.

Southern Ireland (1921–22)

Southern Irelandstatus of ''Southern Ireland'' as part of the UK from 1920 until 1922the southern part of Ireland
Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
It comprised 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland or about five-sixths of the area of the island, whilst the remaining six counties in the northeast of the island formed Northern Ireland.

Northern Ireland peace process

peace processceasefireJoint Framework Document
The 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons and security normalisation, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, and sporadic violence has continued.
In 1994, talks between the leaders of the two main Irish nationalist parties in Northern Ireland, John Hume of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), and Gerry Adams of Sinn Féin (SF), continued.

Irish Free State

Free StateIrelandIrish independence
Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland, which comprised the remaining six counties, exercised its right under the Treaty to opt out of the new state.

2011 United Kingdom census

2011 census2011 UK Census2011
In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is responsible for the census in England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland (GROS) is responsible for the census in Scotland, and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) is responsible for the census in Northern Ireland.

Ireland at the Olympics

IrelandRepublic of Ireland3
Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, and people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games.
There has been controversy over whether the team represents the Republic of Ireland or the entire island of Ireland, which comprises both the Republic and Northern Ireland.

Great Britain at the Olympics

Great BritainGreat Britain and Northern IrelandTeam GB
Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, and people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games.
As the National Olympic Committee (NOC) for the United Kingdom, the British Olympic Association (BOA) membership encompasses the four Home Nations of the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales), plus the three Crown dependencies (Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey), and all but three of the British overseas territories (Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands and Bermuda having their own NOCs).

Stormont Estate

StormontAn estate in County Down, east of Belfastgrounds
Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly (colloquially referred to as Stormont after its location) holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government.
The Stormont Estate is an estate east of Belfast in County Down, Northern Ireland.

Orange Order

Orange LodgeOrangemenOrangeman
These events escalated at the end of the century following an event known as the Battle of the Diamond, which saw the supremacy of the Anglican and Presbyterian Peep o'Day Boys over the Catholic Defenders and leading to the formation of the Anglican Orange Order.
The Loyal Orange Institution, commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal order in Northern Ireland.

Culture of Ireland

Irish cultureIrishculture
Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In Northern Ireland on The Twelfth of July, commemorates William III's victory at the Battle of the Boyne is a public holiday.

William III of England

William IIIWilliam of OrangeKing William III
Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV (the "Sun King"), the powerful King of France who had been in conflict with the papacy for decades.
He is sometimes informally known as "King Billy" in Northern Ireland and Scotland, where his victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by Unionists and Ulster loyalists.

Commonwealth Games

British Empire GamesCommonwealthBritish Empire and Commonwealth Games
Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, and people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games.
The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom—England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland—also send separate teams.

Northern Ireland Act 1998

Northern Ireland ActNorthern Ireland Act (1998)
Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly (colloquially referred to as Stormont after its location) holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government.
The Northern Ireland Act 1998 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which established a devolved legislature for Northern Ireland, the Northern Ireland Assembly, after decades of direct rule from Westminster.