Northern and Southern dynasties

Southern and Northern DynastiesSouthern DynastiesNorthern DynastiesSouthern dynastyNorthern and Southerntwo warring nationsNorthern and Southern Dynasties PeriodSouthern and Northern DynastySouthern dynasties periodCh'i and Liang Dynasties
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 386 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.wikipedia
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Sixteen Kingdoms

Sixteen Kingdoms Periodmultiple statesSixteen States
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 386 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states. In the Sixteen Kingdoms period, the Tuoba family of the Xianbei were the rulers of the state of Dai (Sixteen Kingdoms).
The period ended with the unification of northern China in the early 5th century by the Northern Wei, a dynasty established by the Xianbei Tuoba clan, and the history of ancient China entered the Northern and Southern dynasties period.

Sui dynasty

SuiSui ChinaSui Empire
The period came to an end with the unification of all of China proper by Emperor Wen of the Sui dynasty.
The Sui unified the Northern and Southern dynasties and reinstalled the rule of ethnic Chinese in the entirety of China proper, along with sinicization of former nomadic ethnic minorities (Five Barbarians) within its territory.

Liang dynasty

LiangSouthern LiangLiang Empire
Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei's sister the Shouyang Princess was wedded to The Liang dynasty ruler Emperor Wu of Liang's son Xiao Zong 蕭綜.
The Liang dynasty (502–557), also known as the Southern Liang, was the third of the Southern Dynasties during China's Southern and Northern Dynasties period.

Southern Qi

Southern Qi dynastyQi Southern Qi Dynasty
Several daughters of the Xianbei Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei were married to Han Chinese elites, the Liu Song royal Liu Hui, married Princess Lanling of the Northern Wei, Princess Huayang to Sima Fei, a descendant of Jin dynasty (265–420) royalty, Princess Jinan to Lu Daoqian, Princess Nanyang to Xiao Baoyin, a member of Southern Qi royalty.
The Southern Qi (479-502) was the second of the Southern dynasties in China, followed by the Liang Dynasty.

Northern Qi

Northern Qi DynastyBeiqiQi
It can be divided into three time periods: Northern Wei; Eastern and Western Weis; Northern Qi and Northern Zhou.
The Northern Qi was one of the Northern dynasties of ancient China history and ruled northern China from 550 to 577.

Six Dynasties

Period of DisunitySix Dynasties PeriodAge of Fragmentation
It is sometimes considered as the latter part of a longer period known as the Six Dynasties (220 to 589).
Six Dynasties (Chinese: 六朝; Pinyin: Liù Cháo; 220 or 222–589 ) is a collective term for six Han-ruled dynasties in China during the periods of the Three Kingdoms (220–280 AD), Jin dynasty (265–420), and Southern and Northern Dynasties (420–589).

Northern Zhou

Northern Zhou dynastyZhou dynastyfrom China
It can be divided into three time periods: Northern Wei; Eastern and Western Weis; Northern Qi and Northern Zhou.
The last of the Northern Dynasties of China's Northern and Southern dynasties period, it was eventually overthrown by the Sui Dynasty.

Cao Wei

WeiKingdom of WeiWei Dynasty
Of these, Cao Wei was the strongest, followed by Eastern Wu and Shu Han, but they were initially in a relatively stable formation.
Historians often add the prefix "Cao" to distinguish it from other Chinese states known as "Wei", such as Wei of the Warring States period and Northern Wei of the Northern and Southern dynasties.

Western Liang (555–587)

Western LiangWestern Liang dynastyWestern Wei
Western Wei set up the puppet state of Western Liang with capital at Jiangling.
The Liang (555–587), later called the Western Liang or Later Liang to distinguish it from the Liang dynasty (502–557), was a small puppet state during the Northern and Southern dynasties period, located in the middle Yangtze region in today's central Hubei province.

Five Barbarians

Wu HuHuFive Barbarian
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 386 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.
The Northern Wei unified North China again in 439 and ushered in the period of the Northern Dynasties.

Nanjing

NankingNanjing, ChinaJinling
Cementing their power in the south, the Jin established Jiankang on the existing site of Jianke (now Nanjing) as their new capital, renaming the dynasty as the Eastern Jin since the new capital was located southeast of Luoyang.
Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu (229–280), one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms period; the Eastern Jin and each of the Southern dynasties (Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and Chen), which successively ruled southern China from 317–589; the Southern Tang (937–75), one of the Ten Kingdoms; the Ming dynasty when, for the first time, all of China was ruled from the city (1368–1421); and the Republic of China under the right wing Kuomintang (1927–37, 1946–49) prior to its flight to Taiwan by Chiang Kai-Shek during the Chinese Civil War.

Jiankang

JianyeJiankang PrefectureJiangning
Cementing their power in the south, the Jin established Jiankang on the existing site of Jianke (now Nanjing) as their new capital, renaming the dynasty as the Eastern Jin since the new capital was located southeast of Luoyang.
Jiankang, or Jianye, as it was originally called, was the capital city of the Eastern Wu (229–265 and 266–280 CE), the Jin dynasty (317–420 CE) and the Southern Dynasties (420–552 and 557–589 CE).

Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei

Emperor TaiwuTuoba TaoTai Wu Di
Under the rule of Emperors Daowu (Tuoba Gui), Mingyuan, and Taiwu, the Northern Wei progressively expanded.
He was generally regarded as a capable ruler, and during his reign, Northern Wei roughly doubled in size and united all of northern China, thus ending the Sixteen Kingdoms period and, together with the southern dynasty Liu Song, started the Southern and Northern Dynasties period of ancient China history.

Liu Song dynasty

Liu SongSong DynastySong
Several daughters of the Xianbei Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei were married to Han Chinese elites, the Liu Song royal Liu Hui, married Princess Lanling of the Northern Wei, Princess Huayang to Sima Fei, a descendant of Jin dynasty (265–420) royalty, Princess Jinan to Lu Daoqian, Princess Nanyang to Xiao Baoyin, a member of Southern Qi royalty. Though he managed to conquer Liu Song's province of Henan, he died soon afterwards.
The Liu Song dynasty (420–479 CE; ), also known as Former Song or Southern Song, was the first of the four Southern Dynasties in China, succeeding the Eastern Jin and followed by the Southern Qi.

Northern and southern China

Southern ChinaNorthern ChinaSouth China
This process was also accompanied by the increasing popularity of Buddhism (introduced into China in the 1st century) in both northern and southern China and Daoism gaining influence as well, with two essential Daoist canons written during this period.

Cui Hao

The establishment of the early Northern Wei state and economy was also greatly indebted to the father-son pair of Cui Hong and Cui Hao.
Largely because of Cui's counsel, Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei was able to unify northern China, ending the Sixteen Kingdoms era and, along with the southern Liu Song, entering the Southern and Northern Dynasties era.

Emperor Wu of Jin

Sima YanEmperor WuSima Yan (Emperor Wu)
Sima Yan then founded the Jin Dynasty as Emperor Wu of Jin and the conquest of Wu by Jin occurred in 280, ending the Three Kingdoms period and reuniting China.
This system, while it would be scaled back after the War of the Eight Princes and the loss of northern China, would remain in place as a Jin institution for the duration of the dynasty's existence, and would be adopted by the succeeding Southern dynasties as well.

Northern Wei

Northern Wei DynastyWeiand future dynasties
It can be divided into three time periods: Northern Wei; Eastern and Western Weis; Northern Qi and Northern Zhou. Eventually, the Northern Wei conquered the rest of the northern states in 386.
The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire, also known as the Tuoba Wei, Later Wei, or Yuan Wei, was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba (Tabgach) clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 AD (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.

Emperor Wu of Liang

Emperor WuXiao YanWu Di
Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei's sister the Shouyang Princess was wedded to The Liang dynasty ruler Emperor Wu of Liang's son Xiao Zong 蕭綜.
His reign, until the end, was one of the most stable and prosperous during the Southern Dynasties.

Jin dynasty (266–420)

Jin dynastyJinJin Dynasty (265-420)
Several daughters of the Xianbei Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei were married to Han Chinese elites, the Liu Song royal Liu Hui, married Princess Lanling of the Northern Wei, Princess Huayang to Sima Fei, a descendant of Jin dynasty (265–420) royalty, Princess Jinan to Lu Daoqian, Princess Nanyang to Xiao Baoyin, a member of Southern Qi royalty. Sima Yan then founded the Jin Dynasty as Emperor Wu of Jin and the conquest of Wu by Jin occurred in 280, ending the Three Kingdoms period and reuniting China. The invention of the stirrup during the earlier Jin dynasty (265–420) helped spur the development of heavy cavalry as a combat standard.
In the north, Northern Liang, the last of the Sixteen Kingdoms, was conquered by the Northern Wei in 439, ushering in the Northern dynasties period.

Emperor Wen of Sui

Emperor WenYang JianWéndi
The period came to an end with the unification of all of China proper by Emperor Wen of the Sui dynasty.
The Southern and Northern Dynasties period was over, and Sui had united China.

Tan Daoji

Because of his jealousy of Tan Daoji, a noted leader of the Army of the Northern Garrison, he deprived himself of a formidable general to the great delight of the Northern Wei.
He was one of the most respected generals during the Southern and Northern Dynasties era.

Shandong

Shandong ProvinceShantungShantung Province
In order to gain popularity to take the throne he led expeditions against the Sixteen Kingdoms, capturing Shandong, Henan and, briefly, Guanzhong by 416.
Over the next century or so Shandong changed hands several times, falling to the Later Zhao, then Former Yan, then Former Qin, then Later Yan, then Southern Yan, then the Liu Song dynasty, and finally the Northern Wei dynasty, the first of the Northern dynasties during the Northern and Southern dynasties Period.

Xianbei

Xianbei languageXianbicolonised by Turkic people
The Northern, Eastern, and Western Wei along with the Northern Zhou were established by the Xianbei people while the Northern Qi was established by Sinicized barbarians.
Most of them were unified by the Tuoba Xianbei, who established the Northern Wei (386-535), which was the first of the Northern Dynasties (386-581) founded by the Xianbei.

Tuoba

Tuoba clanTuòbáTabgach
In the Sixteen Kingdoms period, the Tuoba family of the Xianbei were the rulers of the state of Dai (Sixteen Kingdoms).
More than fifty percent of Tuoba Xianbei princesses of the Northern Wei were married to southern Chinese men from the imperial families and aristocrats from southern China of the Southern dynasties who defected and moved north to join the Northern Wei.