Northwest Territory

Old NorthwestTerritory Northwest of the River OhioNorthwestNorthwest TerritoriesOhio TerritoryNorth-West TerritorySecretary of Northwest Territorythe area north of the Ohio RiverOld Northwest TerritoryThe Northwest
The Northwest Territory in the United States (also known as the Old Northwest ) was formed after the American Revolutionary War, and was known formally as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.wikipedia
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Ohio

OHState of OhioOhio, USA
It spanned all or large parts of six eventual U.S. States (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and the northeastern part of Minnesota). It was created as a Territory by the Northwest Ordinance July 13, 1787, reduced to Ohio, eastern Michigan and a sliver of southeastern Indiana with the formation of Indiana Territory July 4, 1800, and ceased to exist March 1, 1803, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Ohio, and the remainder attached to Indiana Territory.
Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, and the first under the Northwest Ordinance.

Michigan

MIState of MichiganMich.
It spanned all or large parts of six eventual U.S. States (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and the northeastern part of Minnesota).
The area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory.

Ohio River

OhioOhio ValleyList of cities and towns along the Ohio River
It was the initial post-colonial Territory of the United States and encompassed most of pre-war British colonial territory west of the Appalachian mountains north of the Ohio River.
In the late 18th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory.

Indiana

INState of IndianaInd.
It spanned all or large parts of six eventual U.S. States (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and the northeastern part of Minnesota).
On May 7, 1800, the United States Congress passed legislation to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and named the western section the Indiana Territory.

Northwest Ordinance

Northwest Ordinance of 1787Ordinance of 1787Northwest Ordnance
It was created as a Territory by the Northwest Ordinance July 13, 1787, reduced to Ohio, eastern Michigan and a sliver of southeastern Indiana with the formation of Indiana Territory July 4, 1800, and ceased to exist March 1, 1803, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Ohio, and the remainder attached to Indiana Territory.
It created the Northwest Territory, the first organized territory of the United States, from lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains, between British North America and the Great Lakes to the north and the Ohio River to the south.

Indiana Territory

Territory of IndianaIndianaIndiana Territorial Legislature
It was created as a Territory by the Northwest Ordinance July 13, 1787, reduced to Ohio, eastern Michigan and a sliver of southeastern Indiana with the formation of Indiana Territory July 4, 1800, and ceased to exist March 1, 1803, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Ohio, and the remainder attached to Indiana Territory.
The Indiana Territory was the first new territory created from lands of the Northwest Territory, which had been organized under the terms of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.

Northwest Indian War

Northwest Indian Warswar1790 campaign
Conflicts between settlers and Native American inhabitants of the Territory resulted in the Northwest Indian War culminating in General "Mad" Anthony Wayne's victory at Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.
The Northwest Indian War (1785–1795), also known as the Ohio War, Little Turtle's War, and by other names, was a war between the United States and a confederation of numerous Native American tribes, with support from the British, for control of the Northwest Territory.

Treaty of Greenville

Greenville Treaty LineGreenville TreatyGreeneville
The subsequent Treaty of Greenville 1795 opened the way for settlement of southern and western Ohio.
The Treaty of Greenville, formally titled Treaty with the Wyandots, etc., was a 1795 treaty between the United States and Indians of the Northwest Territory including the Wyandot and Delaware, which redefined the boundary between Indian lands and Whiteman's lands in the Northwest Territory.

Illinois

ILState of IllinoisIll.
It spanned all or large parts of six eventual U.S. States (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and the northeastern part of Minnesota).
In a compromise, Virginia ceded the area to the new United States in 1783 and it became part of the Northwest Territory, to be administered by the federal government and later organized as states.

Battle of Fallen Timbers

Fallen Timbersat Fallen TimbersBattle of Maumee Rapids
Conflicts between settlers and Native American inhabitants of the Territory resulted in the Northwest Indian War culminating in General "Mad" Anthony Wayne's victory at Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794.
The Battle of Fallen Timbers (20 August 1794) was the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, a struggle between Native American tribes affiliated with the Western Confederacy and their British allies, against the nascent United States for control of the Northwest Territory.

Upper Canada

UpperProvince of Upper CanadaUpper Canadian
Lands west of the Mississippi River were the Louisiana Province of New France (acquired by the United States in 1803 by the Louisiana Purchase); lands north of the Great Lakes were the British Province of Upper Canada, and lands south of the Ohio River constituted Kentucky County, Virginia, admitted to the union as the state of Kentucky in 1792.
The British passed the Quebec Act in 1774, which expanded the Quebec colony's authority to include part of the Indian Reserve to the west (i.e., parts of southern Ontario), and other western territories south of the Great Lakes including much of what would become the United States' Northwest Territory, including the modern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin and parts of Minnesota.

Ohio Country

OhioOhio territoryOhio Valley
It incorporated most of the former Ohio Country except a portion in western Pennsylvania, and eastern Illinois Country.
In 1787, it became part of the larger organized Northwest Territory.

Treaty of Paris (1783)

Treaty of Paris1783 Treaty of ParisTreaty of Paris of 1783
The region was ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Paris of 1783. Britain officially ceded the area north of the Ohio River and west of the Appalachians to the United States at the end of the American Revolutionary War with the Treaty of Paris (1783), but the British continued to maintain a presence in the region as late as 1815, the end of the War of 1812.
Britain would take the area north of the Ohio River.

George Rogers Clark

General George Rogers ClarkColonel George Rogers ClarkGeorge R. Clark
In February 1779, George Rogers Clark of the Virginia Militia captured Kaskaskia and Vincennes from British commander Henry Hamilton.
He is best known for his celebrated captures of Kaskaskia (1778) and Vincennes (1779) during the Illinois Campaign, which greatly weakened British influence in the Northwest Territory.

Marietta, Ohio

MariettaMarietta, OHHarmar
St. Clair formally established the government on July 15, 1788, at Marietta.
During 1788, pioneers to the Ohio Country established Marietta as the first permanent settlement of the new United States in the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.

Virginia Military District

Virginia Military ReserveVirginia Military Tract
Virginia and Connecticut reserved two areas to use as compensation to military veterans: The Virginia Military District and the Connecticut Western Reserve
Virginia had historic claims to much of the Northwest Territory, which included Ohio, dating from its colonial charter.

Public Land Survey System

PLSSPublic Lands Survey Systemsurvey
The Land Ordinance of 1785 established a standardized system for surveying the land into saleable lots, although Ohio would be partially surveyed several times using different methods, resulting in a patchwork of land surveys in Ohio.
Following the passage of the Northwest Ordinance, in 1787, the Surveyor General of the Northwest Territory platted lands in the Northwest Territory.

War of 1812

The War of 1812American War of 1812war
Britain officially ceded the area north of the Ohio River and west of the Appalachians to the United States at the end of the American Revolutionary War with the Treaty of Paris (1783), but the British continued to maintain a presence in the region as late as 1815, the end of the War of 1812.
The Northwest Territory consisted of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and was the battleground for conflict between the United States and various Indian tribes.

Illinois campaign

campaignapproaching Fort SackvilleBattle of Vincennes
In February 1779, George Rogers Clark of the Virginia Militia captured Kaskaskia and Vincennes from British commander Henry Hamilton.
Because the British ceded the entire Northwest Territory to the United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, some historians have credited Clark with nearly doubling the size of the original Thirteen Colonies by seizing control of the Illinois Country during the war.

Louisiana (New France)

LouisianaFrench LouisianaLa Louisiane
Lands west of the Mississippi River were the Louisiana Province of New France (acquired by the United States in 1803 by the Louisiana Purchase); lands north of the Great Lakes were the British Province of Upper Canada, and lands south of the Ohio River constituted Kentucky County, Virginia, admitted to the union as the state of Kentucky in 1792.
Following the transfer of power (at which time many of the French settlers on the east bank of the Mississippi crossed the river to what had become Spanish Louisiana) the eastern Illinois Country became part of the British Province of Quebec, and later the United States' Northwest Territory.

Harmar campaign

Harmar's DefeatHardin's Defeatexpedition
Mutual hostilities led to a campaign by General Josiah Harmar, whose 1,500 militiamen were defeated by the Indians in October 1790.
The Harmar campaign was an attempt by the United States, in the fall of 1790, to subdue Native Americans in the Northwest Territory who were seeking to expel American settlers they saw as interlopers in their territory.

Rufus Putnam

In Jan. 1791, Rufus Putnam wrote to President Washington that "we shall be so reduced and discouraged as to give up the settlement [Marietta following the Big Bottom disaster]."
As an organizer of the Ohio Company, he was instrumental in the initial settling of the Northwest Territory in present-day Ohio following the war.

Arthur St. Clair

St. ClairGeneral Arthur St. ClairGeneral St. Clair
The Northwest Territory's first governor, Arthur St. Clair, sought to end Native American claims to Ohio land and thus clear the way for white settlement.
He was then made governor of the Northwest Territory in 1788, and then the portion that would become Ohio in 1800.

Treaty of Fort Harmar

17891789 Treaty of Fort Harmor
In 1789, he succeeded in getting certain Indians to sign the Treaty of Fort Harmar, but many native leaders had not been invited to participate in the negotiations or had refused to do so.
The Treaty of Fort Harmar was an agreement between the United States government and numerous Native American tribes with claims to the Northwest Territory.

St. Clair's defeat

Battle of the Wabashalmost annihilatedattacked
More than 600 soldiers and scores of women and children were killed in the battle, known as "St. Clair's Defeat" and many other names.
St. Clair's defeat, also known as the Battle of the Wabash, the Battle of Wabash River or the Battle of a Thousand Slain, was a battle fought on November 4, 1791, in the Northwest Territory of the United States of America.