Norwegian Campaign

NorwayGerman invasion of Norwayinvasion of Norwaysubsequent fightingfightinginvasionGerman invasionNorway 1940campaign in NorwayWorld War II
The Norwegian Campaign was the attempted Allied liberation of the Scandinavian nation of Norway from Nazi Germany during the early stages of World War II and directly following the Nazi's invasion and occupation of the Norwegian mainland and government.wikipedia
1,107 Related Articles

Phoney War

phony warDrôle de Guerre3 September 1939 to 9 May 1940
However, neither country mounted significant offensive operations and for several months no major engagements occurred in what became known as the Phoney War or "Twilight War".
The Allied discussions about a Scandinavian campaign caused concern in Germany and resulted in the German invasion of Denmark and Norway in April, and the Allied troops previously assembled for Finland were redirected to Norway instead.

Neville Chamberlain

ChamberlainMr. ChamberlainNeville
Winston Churchill in particular wished to move the war into a more active phase, in contrast to Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.
Chamberlain resigned the premiership on 10 May 1940 as the Allies were being forced to retreat from Norway, as he believed that a government supported by all parties was essential, and the Labour and Liberal parties would not join a government he headed.

Free Norwegian forces

exiledexiled Norwegian forcesin exile
The campaign ended with the occupation of Norway by Germany, and the continued fighting by exiled Norwegian forces from abroad.
The Norwegian armed forces in exile (Utefronten, "Forces Abroad") were remnants of the armed forces of Norway that continued to fight the Axis powers from Allied countries, such as Britain and Canada, after they had escaped the German conquest of Norway during World War II.

Norway

Norwegian🇳🇴NOR
The Norwegian Campaign was the attempted Allied liberation of the Scandinavian nation of Norway from Nazi Germany during the early stages of World War II and directly following the Nazi's invasion and occupation of the Norwegian mainland and government.
Although Norway was unprepared for the German surprise attack (see: Battle of Drøbak Sound, Norwegian Campaign, and Invasion of Norway), military and naval resistance lasted for two months.

Nazi Germany

GermanGermanyNazi
The Norwegian Campaign was the attempted Allied liberation of the Scandinavian nation of Norway from Nazi Germany during the early stages of World War II and directly following the Nazi's invasion and occupation of the Norwegian mainland and government.
Denmark fell after less than a day, while most of Norway followed by the end of the month.

Battle of the Atlantic

AtlanticAtlantic convoysAtlantic campaign
Controlling Norway would also be a strategic asset in the Battle of the Atlantic.
The resulting Norwegian campaign revealed serious flaws in the magnetic influence pistol (firing mechanism) of the U-boats' principal weapon, the torpedo.

HMS Ivanhoe (D16)

IvanhoeHMS ''IvanhoeHMS ''Ivanhoe'' (I16)
Under the attack of two British destroyers (HMS Ivanhoe and Intrepid), Altmark fled into the Jøssingfjord.
Ivanhoe reverted to her minelaying role during the Norwegian Campaign in April 1940 and then laid a number of minefields off the Dutch coast during the Battle of the Netherlands in May.

Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service

air forcenaval air groupnaval aircraft
The Norwegian Army Air Service and the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service were also called up to protect Norwegian neutrality from violations by the warring countries.
Other naval air stations were established in Kristiansand in 1918, Bergen in 1919 and in Tromsø shortly before the invasion in 1940.

Kriegsmarine

GermanGerman NavyNavy
Großadmiral Erich Raeder had pointed out several times in 1939 the potential danger to Germany of Britain seizing the initiative and launching its own invasion in Scandinavia – if the powerful Royal Navy had bases at Bergen, Narvik and Trondheim, the North Sea would be virtually closed to Germany, and the Kriegsmarine would be at risk even in the Baltic.
The losses in the Norwegian Campaign left only a handful of undamaged heavy ships available for the planned, but never executed, invasion of the United Kingdom (Operation Sea Lion) in the summer of 1940.

Narvik

Narvik Kommuneports of Narvik
First was the importance of the iron ore that came through the port of Narvik, from which large quantities of iron ore from Sweden (on which Germany depended), were exported; this route was especially important during the winter months when much of the Baltic Sea was frozen over.
The port of Narvik proved to be strategically valuable in the early years of World War II and the town became a focal point of the Norwegian Campaign.

Operation Wilfred

Wilfredmining Norwegian watersOperation ''Wilfred
It was agreed to utilize Churchill's naval mining plan, Operation Wilfred, designed to remove the sanctuary of the Leads and force transport ships into international waters where the Royal Navy could engage and destroy them.
On 8 April 1940, the operation was partly carried out, but was overtaken by events as a result of the following day′s German invasion of Norway and Denmark (Operation Weserübung), which began the Norwegian Campaign.

Paul Reynaud

ReynaudFrench Prime Minister Paul Reynaud
However, the new French prime minister, Paul Reynaud, took a more aggressive stance than his predecessor and wanted some form of action taken against Germany.
Aiming at diverting German attentions from France, Reynaud entertained suggestions to expand the war to the Balkans or northern Europe; he was instrumental in launching the allied campaign in Norway, though it ended in failure.

Winston Churchill

ChurchillSir Winston ChurchillChurchill, Winston
Winston Churchill in particular wished to move the war into a more active phase, in contrast to Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.
However, Chamberlain and the rest of the War Cabinet disagreed, and the start of the mining plan, Operation Wilfred, was delayed until 8 April 1940, a day before the successful German invasion of Norway.

Gloster Gladiator

GladiatorGladiatorsGloster Sea Gladiator
The Norwegian Army Air Service's Jagevingen fighter flight based on Fornebu Airport resisted with their Gloster Gladiator biplane fighters until ammunition ran out and then flew off to whatever secondary airfields were available.
The RAF used it in France, Norway, Greece, the defence of Malta, the Middle East, and the brief Anglo-Iraqi War (during which the Royal Iraqi Air Force was similarly equipped).

Nasjonal Samling

NSNational UnificationNational Gathering
On 14 December 1939, Raeder introduced Adolf Hitler to Vidkun Quisling, a pro-Nazi former defence minister of Norway.
When Germany invaded Norway in April 1940, Quisling marched into the studios of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation studios in Oslo and made a radio broadcast proclaiming himself Prime Minister and ordering all anti-German resistance to end immediately.

Charles Forbes (Royal Navy officer)

Charles ForbesSir Charles ForbesCharles M. Forbes
Admiral Sir Charles Forbes, Commander-in-Chief of the British Home Fleet, was notified of this and set out to intercept them at 20:15.
During the Second World War, he served as Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet: his fleet suffered heavy losses including the aircraft carrier and nine destroyers during the Norwegian Campaign in Spring 1940.

Ehrhardt 7.5 cm Model 1901

7.5 cm field gun m/01s75 K 01Ehrhardt 7.5 cm
During the Winter War the Norwegian authorities secretly broke the country's own neutrality by sending the Finns a shipment of 12 Ehrhardt 7.5 cm Model 1901 artillery pieces and 12,000 shells, as well as allowing the British to use Norwegian territory to transfer aircraft and other weaponry to Finland.
During the two months of fighting in the Norwegian Campaign that followed the Norwegian field artillery arm suffered greatly from organizational difficulties.

Denmark in World War II

occupation of DenmarkGerman occupationDenmark
Germany's occupation of Denmark lasted until 5 May 1945.
The decision to occupy its small northern neighbor was taken to facilitate a planned invasion of the strategically more important Norway, and as a precaution against the expected British response.

Vidkun Quisling

QuislingQuisling, Vidkunfører
On 14 December 1939, Raeder introduced Adolf Hitler to Vidkun Quisling, a pro-Nazi former defence minister of Norway.
With Allied forces in Norway, Quisling expected a characteristically swift German response.

Nybergsund

The same day 11 Luftwaffe bombers also attacked the town of Nybergsund, in an attempt at killing the Norwegian King, Crown Prince Olav and cabinet.
The village is best known for serving as a hiding place for the Norwegian royal family and Cabinet and sustaining German bombing during the German conquest of Norway.

2nd Division (Norway)

2nd DivisionNorwegian 2nd Division2. Divisjon
The rest of the region was covered by the 2nd Division, commanded by Major General Jacob Hvinden Haug.
During the early part of the Norwegian Campaign of the Second World War, the Norwegian 2nd Division (2. divisjon), commanded by General Jacob Hvinden Haug, was responsible for defending Eastern Norway against Nazi Germany.

Norwegian Army Air Service

armyNorwegian Army
The Norwegian Army Air Service and the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service were also called up to protect Norwegian neutrality from violations by the warring countries.

Odderøya

Odderøya FortressBattle of Kristiansandcapture Kristiansand
The fortifications at Kristiansand put up an even more resolute fight, twice repulsing the landing and damaging, nearly causing her to run aground.
The coordinated invasion of several cities started the former neutral Norway's participation in World War II on the Allied side.

Swedish iron-ore mining during World War II

Swedish iron oreiron ore from SwedenOther operations
First was the importance of the iron ore that came through the port of Narvik, from which large quantities of iron ore from Sweden (on which Germany depended), were exported; this route was especially important during the winter months when much of the Baltic Sea was frozen over.
Despite warnings from a number of Allied and neutral sources about the imminent invasion, the Norwegians were caught largely unprepared, and on 9 April 1940 the Germans began landing troops in the main Norwegian settlements of Stavanger, Oslo, Trondheim, Bergen and Narvik.

Edmund Ironside, 1st Baron Ironside

Edmund IronsideSir Edmund IronsideIronside
The plan, promoted by the British General Edmund Ironside, included two divisions landing at Narvik, five battalions somewhere in Mid-Norway, and another two divisions at Trondheim.
Following the German invasion of Norway in April 1940 as part of Operation Weserübung, the Norwegian Campaign of April–June 1940 saw significant British forces committed to action for the first time in the Second World War.