Noun phrase

noun phrasesNPnominal phrasenominal phrasesnounphrasesComponents of noun phrasesnominalsnoun stringsnoun-phrase
A noun phrase or nominal (phrase) is a phrase that has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head or performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.wikipedia
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Head (linguistics)

headheadsheaded
A noun phrase or nominal (phrase) is a phrase that has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head or performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
For example, the head of the noun phrase boiling hot water is the noun water.

Noun

nounssubstantiveabstract noun
A noun phrase or nominal (phrase) is a phrase that has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head or performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
In English, nouns are those words which can occur with articles and attributive adjectives and can function as the head of a noun phrase.

Preposition and postposition

prepositionpostpositionprepositions
Noun phrases often function as verb subjects and objects, as predicative expressions, and as the complements of prepositions.
A preposition or postposition typically combines with a noun or pronoun, or more generally a noun phrase, this being called its complement, or sometimes object.

Phrase

phrasesTense phrasephrasal
A noun phrase or nominal (phrase) is a phrase that has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head or performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
For example, in the sentence Yesterday I saw an orange bird with a white neck, the words an orange bird with a white neck form what is called a noun phrase, or a determiner phrase in some theories, which functions as the object of the sentence.

Head-directionality parameter

head-finalhead-initialhead final
This is part of a strong tendency in English to place heavier constituents to the right, making English more of a head-initial language.

Adjective

adjectivesadjectivalattributive adjective
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a word whose main role is to modify/ describe a noun or noun phrase.

Participle

past participlepresent participleparticiples
They also function as arguments in such constructs as participial phrases and prepositional phrases.
A participle () is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

Phrase structure grammar

phrase structureconstituencyconstituency grammar
The phrase structure grammars of the Chomskyan tradition (government and binding theory and the minimalist program) are primary examples of theories that apply this understanding of phrases.
Basic clause structure is understood in terms of a binary division of the clause into subject (noun phrase NP) and predicate (verb phrase VP).

Determiner

determinersDeterminer (linguistics)definite determiner
In some more modern theories of grammar, noun phrases with determiners are analyzed as having the determiner as the head of the phrase, see for instance Chomsky (1995) and Hudson (1990).
A determiner, also called a determinative (abbreviated ), is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.

Dependency grammar

dependentdependencydependency grammars
Other grammars such as dependency grammars are likely to reject this approach to phrases, since they take the words themselves to be primitive.
The phrase structure relation derives from an initial binary division, whereby the clause is split into a subject noun phrase (NP) and a predicate verb phrase (VP).

Adjective phrase

adjectival phraseadjectivalcompound (phrasal) attributives
An attributive adjective (phrase) precedes the noun of a noun phrase (e.g. a very happy man).

Relative clause

relativerelative clausesfree relative clause
Typically, a relative clause modifies a noun or noun phrase, and uses some grammatical device to indicate that one of the arguments within the relative clause has the same referent as that noun or noun phrase.

Adpositional phrase

prepositional phraseprepositional phrasespreposition phrase
They also function as arguments in such constructs as participial phrases and prepositional phrases.
Adpositional phrases contain an adposition (preposition, postposition, or circumposition) as head and usually a complement such as a noun phrase.

Adverb

adverbsadv.abstract noun
Sometimes a noun phrase can also function as an adjunct of the main clause predicate, thus taking on an adverbial function, e.g.

English articles

articlesEnglish indefinite articlethe
(Situations in which this is possible depend on the rules of the language in question; for English, see English articles.)
In some noun phrases, no article is used.

German grammar

GermanGerman casesGerman syntax
A German nominal phrase, in general, consists of the following components in the following order:

Infinitive

infinitivesinfinitivalto''-infinitive
They can play various grammatical roles like a constituent of a larger clause or sentence; for example it may form a noun phrase or adverb.

Predicate (grammar)

predicatepredicatespredication
That is, the syntactic functions that they fulfill are those of the arguments of the main clause predicate, particularly those of subject, object and predicative expression.
A predicative nominal is a noun phrase, such as in a sentence "George III is the king of England", the phrase "the king of England" being the predicative nominal.

Determiner phrase

DPDP hypothesisDPs
In some modern theories of syntax, however, what are called "noun phrases" above are no longer considered to be headed by a noun, but by the determiner (which may be null), and they are thus called determiner phrases (DP) instead of noun phrases.
The traditional analysis of phrases such as the car is that the noun is the head, which means the phrase is a noun phrase (NP), not a determiner phrase.

Shallow parsing

chunkingChunking (computational linguistics)chunker
Shallow parsing (also chunking, "light parsing") is an analysis of a sentence which first identifies constituent parts of sentences (nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.) and then links them to higher order units that have discrete grammatical meanings (noun groups or phrases, verb groups, etc.).

Nominal group (functional grammar)

Nominal groupnominalnominal groups
A nominal group is widely regarded as synonymous to noun phrase in other grammatical models.

Adjunct (grammar)

adjunctadjunctsadnominal
Sometimes a noun phrase can also function as an adjunct of the main clause predicate, thus taking on an adverbial function, e.g.
An adnominal adjunct is one that modifies a noun: for a list of possible types of these, see Components of noun phrases.

Indefinite pronoun

indefiniteindefinite pronounsanybody
A noun phrase or nominal (phrase) is a phrase that has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head or performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.

Linguistic typology

typologicaltypologytypologically
Noun phrases are very common cross-linguistically, and they may be the most frequently occurring phrase type.