Novgorod Republic

NovgorodRepublic of NovgorodNovgorodiansNovgorodianNovgorodian RusNovgorod stateNovgorod LandsNovgorod the GreatRusannexed
The Novgorod Republic or Novgorodian Rus' (Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę, Novgorod land; Novogardie or ) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Gulf of Finland in the west to the northern Ural Mountains in the east, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.wikipedia
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Veliky Novgorod

NovgorodNovgorod the GreatPrincipality of Novgorod
The Novgorod Republic or Novgorodian Rus' (Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę, Novgorod land; Novogardie or ) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Gulf of Finland in the west to the northern Ural Mountains in the east, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
At its peak during the 14th century, the city was the capital of the Novgorod Republic and was one of Europe's largest cities.

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
The Novgorod Republic or Novgorodian Rus' (Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę, Novgorod land; Novogardie or ) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Gulf of Finland in the west to the northern Ural Mountains in the east, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
Kiev's dominance waned, to the benefit of Vladimir-Suzdal in the north-east, Novgorod Republic in the north-west and Galicia-Volhynia in the south-west.

Hanseatic League

HanseaticHanseHansa
The Republic prospered as the easternmost port of the Hanseatic League and its Slavic, Baltic and Finnic people were much influenced by the culture of the Viking-Varangians and Byzantine people. The city of Pskov, initially part of the Novgorodian Land, had de facto independence from at least the 13th century after joining the Hanseatic League.
A treaty with the Visby Hansa put an end to this competition: through this treaty the Lübeck merchants gained access to the inland Russian port of Novgorod, where they built a trading post or Kontor (literally: "office").

Pskov

Pskov, Soviet UnionPskowPskov, Russia
The city of Pskov, initially part of the Novgorodian Land, had de facto independence from at least the 13th century after joining the Hanseatic League.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, the town adhered politically to the Novgorod Republic.

Pskov Republic

Pskovcity of PskovPrince of Pskov
Pskov's independence was acknowledged by the Treaty of Bolotovo in 1348 (see Pskov Republic).
862–1230, after which it was joined to the Novgorod Republic.

Torzhok

Torzhoksky car-building factoryTorzhok City
Cities such as Staraya Russa, Staraya Ladoga, Torzhok, and Oreshek were part of the Novgorodian Land.
Consequently, Torzhok was known as a key to the Novgorod Republic and frequently changed hands during feudal internecine wars.

Lengvenis

Simeon Lingwen
In 1389 the newly appointed Prince of Novgorod, Lithuanian prince Lengvenis, paid homage from the Novgorod territories to Polish King Władysław II Jagiełło in Sandomierz, thus the Novgorod Republic became a fiefdom of the Kingdom of Poland.
1360 – died after 1431; Лугвен-Сымон, Łuhvien; Лугвений, Лугвен, Лугвень, Lugven(y), Lingwen Semen Olgierdowicz) was one of the sons of Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and the ruler of Great Novgorod Republic (1389–1392, 1406–1411).

Tysyatsky

tysyachniktysyatskiy
The Novgorod boyars began to dominate the offices of posadnik and tysyatsky, which until about the mid-12th century had been appointed by the grand prince in Kiev. The precise constitution of the medieval Novgorodian Republic is uncertain, although traditional histories have created the image of a highly institutionalized network of veches (public assemblies) and a government of posadniks (burgomaster), tysyatskys ("thousandmen," originally the head of the town militia, but later a judicial and commercial official), other members of aristocratic families, and the archbishops of Novgorod.
In the Novgorod Republic, the tysyatsky evolved into a judicial or commercial official and was elected from boyars at a veche for a period of one year.

Shlisselburg

OreshekSchlüsselburgSchlisselburg
Cities such as Staraya Russa, Staraya Ladoga, Torzhok, and Oreshek were part of the Novgorodian Land.
In 1478 the Novgorod Republic was absorbed by the Muscovy who immediately started to strengthen their border with Sweden.

Staraya Russa

RussaStaraja RussaStaraya
Cities such as Staraya Russa, Staraya Ladoga, Torzhok, and Oreshek were part of the Novgorodian Land.
Thought to have originated in the mid-10th century, it was first mentioned as Rusa (Cyrillic: Руса) in chronicles for the year 1167 as one of three main towns of the Novgorod Republic, alongside Pskov and Ladoga.

Varangians

VarangianVolga VikingsVarangian Guard
The Republic prospered as the easternmost port of the Hanseatic League and its Slavic, Baltic and Finnic people were much influenced by the culture of the Viking-Varangians and Byzantine people.
Instead, the Varangian ruling classes of the two powerful city-states of Novgorod and Kiev were gradually slavicised by the end of the 11th century.

Ural Mountains

UralsUralthe Urals
The Novgorod Republic or Novgorodian Rus' (Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę, Novgorod land; Novogardie or ) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Gulf of Finland in the west to the northern Ural Mountains in the east, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
The first Russian mention of the mountains to the east of the East European Plain is provided by the Primary Chronicle, when it describes the Novgorodian expedition to the upper reaches of the Pechora in 1096.

Gulf of Finland

Finnish GulfBay of FinlandGulf
The Novgorod Republic or Novgorodian Rus' (Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę, Novgorod land; Novogardie or ) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Gulf of Finland in the west to the northern Ural Mountains in the east, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
The castle was fought over for decades between Sweden and the Novgorod Republic.

Staraya Ladoga

LadogaStaraja LadogaOld Ladoga
Cities such as Staraya Russa, Staraya Ladoga, Torzhok, and Oreshek were part of the Novgorodian Land.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, Ladoga functioned as a trade outpost of the powerful Novgorod Republic.

Lithuania

LTURepublic of LithuaniaLithuanian
The r'ads that have been preserved in archives describe the relationship of Novgorod with twelve invited Princes: five of them from Tver', four from Moscow, and three from Lithuania.
In 1183, Polotsk and Pskov were ravaged, and even the distant and powerful Novgorod Republic was repeatedly threatened by the excursions from the emerging Lithuanian war machine toward the end of the 12th century.

Sandomierz

SandomirDuke of SandomierzSandomierski
In 1389 the newly appointed Prince of Novgorod, Lithuanian prince Lengvenis, paid homage from the Novgorod territories to Polish King Władysław II Jagiełło in Sandomierz, thus the Novgorod Republic became a fiefdom of the Kingdom of Poland.
In 1389 in Sandomierz the newly appointed prince of the Novgorod Republic, Lithuanian prince Lengvenis, paid homage to Polish King Władysław II Jagiełło, thus making Novgorod a fiefdom of the Kingdom of Poland.

Veche

wieccongressesknights' congress
The precise constitution of the medieval Novgorodian Republic is uncertain, although traditional histories have created the image of a highly institutionalized network of veches (public assemblies) and a government of posadniks (burgomaster), tysyatskys ("thousandmen," originally the head of the town militia, but later a judicial and commercial official), other members of aristocratic families, and the archbishops of Novgorod.
The earliest mentions of veche in East European chronicles refer to examples in Belgorod Kievsky in 997, Novgorod the Great in 1016 and in Kiev in 1068.

Treaty of Bolotovo

Pskov's independence was acknowledged by the Treaty of Bolotovo in 1348 (see Pskov Republic).
Up until that point, Pskov had, at least nominally, been part of the Novgorodian Land and subordinate to Novgorod, although it had invited in its own princes and been de facto independent for perhaps a century before that.

Lake Ladoga

LadogaLadoga LakeLaatokka
The Novgorod Republic or Novgorodian Rus' (Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę, Novgorod land; Novogardie or ) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Gulf of Finland in the west to the northern Ural Mountains in the east, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
In the course of the Swedish–Novgorodian Wars, the area was disputed between the Novgorod Republic and Sweden.

Kievan Rus'

Kievan RusRus'Rus
In 882, Prince Oleg founded the Kievan Rus', of which Novgorod was a part from then until 1019-1020.
After his death in 1132, the Kievan Rus' fell into recession and a rapid decline, and Mstislav's successor Yaropolk II of Kiev instead of focusing on the external threat of the Cumans was embroiled in conflicts with the growing power of the Novgorod Republic.

Vsevolod of Pskov

Vsevolod MstislavichSt. VsevolodVsevolod
In 1136, the Novgorodians dismissed Prince Vsevolod Mstislavich and over the next century and a half were able to invite in and dismiss a number of princes. Several princes such as Dovmont (ca 1240-1299) and Vsevolod Mstislavich (before 1117-1138) reigned in Pskov without any deference to or consultation with the prince or other officials in Novgorod.
Vsevolod's dismissal from Novgorod has traditionally been seen as the end of Kievan power in the north and the beginning of the Republic of Novgorod.

Posadnik

mayoress
The Novgorod boyars began to dominate the offices of posadnik and tysyatsky, which until about the mid-12th century had been appointed by the grand prince in Kiev. The precise constitution of the medieval Novgorodian Republic is uncertain, although traditional histories have created the image of a highly institutionalized network of veches (public assemblies) and a government of posadniks (burgomaster), tysyatskys ("thousandmen," originally the head of the town militia, but later a judicial and commercial official), other members of aristocratic families, and the archbishops of Novgorod.
In the Novgorod Republic, the city posadnik was elected from among the boyars by the veche (public assembly).

Yaroslav the Wise

Yaroslav I the WiseYaroslavYaroslav I
The princes had two residences, one on the Marketplace (called Yaroslav's Court, after Yaroslav the Wise), and another (Городище / Riurkovo Gorodische) several miles south of the Market Side of the city.
Thus, the foundation of the Novgorod Republic was laid.

Daumantas of Pskov

DaumantasDovmontDovmont of Pskov
Several princes such as Dovmont (ca 1240-1299) and Vsevolod Mstislavich (before 1117-1138) reigned in Pskov without any deference to or consultation with the prince or other officials in Novgorod.
Daumantas' election was never sanctioned by the Novgorod Republic, which had traditionally controlled the Pskovian affairs.

Novgorod First Chronicle

Novgorod ChronicleChronicle of NovgorodFirst Novgorod Chronicle
The Novgorod First Chronicle, a collection of writings depicting the history of Novgorod from 1016-1471, states that these tribes wanted to “Seek a prince who may rule over us and judge us according to law.” By transforming its governing institutions, Novgorod rejected its politically dependent relationship to Kiev.
The Novgorod First Chronicle or The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016–1471 is the most ancient extant Old Russian chronicle of the Novgorodian Rus'.