Nucleic acid

nucleic acidsNAmolecular basisnucleicNucleic acid (DNA)nucleic acid basesnucleic acids researchnucleic substancesnucleic-acid
Nucleic acids are the biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.wikipedia
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Biomolecule

biochemicalbiomoleculesbiomolecular
Nucleic acids are the biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Biomolecules include large macromolecules (or polyanions) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products.

Nucleotide

nucleotidesntdinucleotide
They are composed of nucleotides, which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.
They are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

Life

livinglife on Earthbiota
Nucleic acids are the biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
There are two kinds of cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic, both of which consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane and contain many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
If the sugar is a compound ribose, the polymer is RNA (ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
If the sugar is a compound ribose, the polymer is RNA (ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.

Polymer

polymershomopolymerpolymeric
If the sugar is a compound ribose, the polymer is RNA (ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
In biological contexts, essentially all biological macromolecules—i.e., proteins (polyamides), nucleic acids (polynucleotides), and polysaccharides—are purely polymeric, or are composed in large part of polymeric components—e.g., isoprenylated/lipid-modified glycoproteins, where small lipidic molecules and oligosaccharide modifications occur on the polyamide backbone of the protein.

Nitrogenous base

basesnitrogen-containingnatural bases
They are composed of nucleotides, which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.
The main biological function of a nitrogenous base is to bond nucleic acids together.

Nucleobase

basesnucleobasesbase
Strings of nucleotides are bonded to form helical backbones—typically, one for RNA, two for DNA—and assembled into chains of base-pairs selected from the five primary, or canonical, nucleobases, which are: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil. Each nucleotide consists of three components: a purine or pyrimidine nucleobase (sometimes termed nitrogenous base or simply base), a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.

Biopolymer

biopolymersbio-polymerbiological polymers
Nucleic acids are the biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
The convention for a nucleic acid sequence is to list the nucleotides as they occur from the 5' end to the 3' end of the polymer chain, where 5' and 3' refer to the numbering of carbons around the ribose ring which participate in forming the phosphate diester linkages of the chain.

Albrecht Kossel

Albrecht-KosselKossel, (Karl Martin Leonhard)Albrecht
He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1910 for his work in determining the chemical composition of nucleic acids, the genetic substance of biological cells.

Friedrich Miescher

Friedrich Miescher PrizeJohann Friedrich MiescherMiescher, Johann Friedrich
He was the first scientist to isolate nucleic acid.

Cell nucleus

nucleusnucleinuclear
Nucleic acids are the most important of all biomolecules. Although first discovered within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, nucleic acids are now known to be found in all life forms including within bacteria, archaea, mitochondria, chloroplasts, viruses, and viroids.
This size selectively allows the passage of small water-soluble molecules while preventing larger molecules, such as nucleic acids and larger proteins, from inappropriately entering or exiting the nucleus.

James Watson

James D. WatsonWatsonJames Dewey Watson
Watson, Crick and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material".

Francis Crick

CrickFrancis Harry Compton CrickFrancis H.C. Crick
Together with Watson and Maurice Wilkins, he was jointly awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material".

Deoxyribose

2-deoxyribose-deoxyriboseDeoxyribofuranose
If the sugar is a compound ribose, the polymer is RNA (ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
-2-deoxyribose is a precursor to the nucleic acid DNA.

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
These are found in abundance in all living things, where they function to create and encode and then store information of every living cell of every life-form organism on Earth.
It is able to form small three-atom compounds (such as carbon dioxide), as well as large chains of many thousands of atoms that can store data (nucleic acids), hold cells together, and transmit information (protein).

Archaea

archaeonarcheaarchaebacteria
Although first discovered within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, nucleic acids are now known to be found in all life forms including within bacteria, archaea, mitochondria, chloroplasts, viruses, and viroids.
Classification is difficult because most have not been isolated in the laboratory and have only been detected by analysis of their nucleic acids in samples from their environment.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
Although first discovered within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, nucleic acids are now known to be found in all life forms including within bacteria, archaea, mitochondria, chloroplasts, viruses, and viroids.
; Co-evolution hypothesis : This is also called the virus-first hypothesis and proposes that viruses may have evolved from complex molecules of protein and nucleic acid at the same time as cells first appeared on Earth and would have been dependent on cellular life for billions of years.

Adenine

AA'''denineadenine nucleotides
Also, the nucleobases found in the two nucleic acid types are different: adenine, cytosine, and guanine are found in both RNA and DNA, while thymine occurs in DNA and uracil occurs in RNA.
It is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

Pyrimidine

pyrimidinespyrimidine nucleotidesp'''Y'''rimidine
Each nucleotide consists of three components: a purine or pyrimidine nucleobase (sometimes termed nitrogenous base or simply base), a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.
In nucleic acids, three types of nucleobases are pyrimidine derivatives: cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U).

Guanine

GG'''uanineGG
Also, the nucleobases found in the two nucleic acid types are different: adenine, cytosine, and guanine are found in both RNA and DNA, while thymine occurs in DNA and uracil occurs in RNA.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

Uracil

Uuracil nucleotidesU'''racil
Also, the nucleobases found in the two nucleic acid types are different: adenine, cytosine, and guanine are found in both RNA and DNA, while thymine occurs in DNA and uracil occurs in RNA.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

Thymine

TT'''hymineT nucleobase
Also, the nucleobases found in the two nucleic acid types are different: adenine, cytosine, and guanine are found in both RNA and DNA, while thymine occurs in DNA and uracil occurs in RNA.
Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

Nucleic acid double helix

double helixminor grooveB-DNA
In most cases, naturally occurring DNA molecules are double-stranded and RNA molecules are single-stranded.
In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.

Directionality (molecular biology)

533' end
This gives nucleic acids directionality, and the ends of nucleic acid molecules are referred to as 5'-end and 3'-end.
Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.