Nucleotide

nucleotidesntdinucleotidebasesnucleoside diphosphatenucleoside monophosphatedeoxynucleotidenucleotide synthesisbaseNDP
Nucleotides are molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate group.wikipedia
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Nucleoside

nucleosides2'-deoxynucleosidesaminonucleoside
Nucleotides are molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate group.
Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group.

Nucleic acid

nucleic acidsNAmolecular basis
They are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
They are composed of nucleotides, which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
They are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth. They are the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA.
The two DNA strands are also known as polynucleotides as they are composed of simpler monomeric units called nucleotides.

Nucleobase

basesnucleobasesbase
Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids; they are composed of three sub unit molecules: a nitrogenous base (also known as nucleobase), a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and at least one phosphate group.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
They are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth. They are the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA.
Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA it is more often found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand.

Metabolism

metabolicmetabolizedmetabolic pathways
Nucleotides also play a central role in metabolism at a fundamental, cellular level.
The two nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, are polymers of nucleotides.

Phosphate

phosphatesphosphate groupinorganic phosphate
Nucleotides are molecules consisting of a nucleoside and a phosphate group. Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids; they are composed of three sub unit molecules: a nitrogenous base (also known as nucleobase), a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and at least one phosphate group.
Similar reactions exist for the other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates.

Biomolecule

biochemicalbiomoleculesbiomolecular
They are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Nucleosides can be phosphorylated by specific kinases in the cell, producing nucleotides.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NAD + NADHNAD
They carry packets of chemical energy—in the form of the nucleoside triphosphates Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), Guanosine triphosphate (GTP), Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and Uridine triphosphate (UTP)—throughout the cell to the many cellular functions that demand energy, which include: synthesizing amino acids, proteins and cell membranes and parts, moving the cell and moving cell parts (both internally and intercellularly), dividing the cell, etc. In addition, nucleotides participate in cell signaling (cyclic guanosine monophosphate or cGMP and cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cAMP), and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions (e.g. coenzyme A, FAD, FMN, NAD, and NADP + ).
Found in all living cells, NAD is called a dinucleotide because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups.

Nucleoside triphosphate

dNTPnucleotide triphosphateNTP
They carry packets of chemical energy—in the form of the nucleoside triphosphates Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), Guanosine triphosphate (GTP), Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and Uridine triphosphate (UTP)—throughout the cell to the many cellular functions that demand energy, which include: synthesizing amino acids, proteins and cell membranes and parts, moving the cell and moving cell parts (both internally and intercellularly), dividing the cell, etc. In addition, nucleotides participate in cell signaling (cyclic guanosine monophosphate or cGMP and cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cAMP), and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions (e.g. coenzyme A, FAD, FMN, NAD, and NADP + ).
Nucleotides are nucleosides covalently linked to one or more phosphate groups.

Cofactor (biochemistry)

cofactorcofactorscoenzyme
They carry packets of chemical energy—in the form of the nucleoside triphosphates Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), Guanosine triphosphate (GTP), Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and Uridine triphosphate (UTP)—throughout the cell to the many cellular functions that demand energy, which include: synthesizing amino acids, proteins and cell membranes and parts, moving the cell and moving cell parts (both internally and intercellularly), dividing the cell, etc. In addition, nucleotides participate in cell signaling (cyclic guanosine monophosphate or cGMP and cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cAMP), and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions (e.g. coenzyme A, FAD, FMN, NAD, and NADP + ).
Many contain the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate (AMP) as part of their structures, such as ATP, coenzyme A, FAD, and NAD +.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
They carry packets of chemical energy—in the form of the nucleoside triphosphates Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), Guanosine triphosphate (GTP), Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and Uridine triphosphate (UTP)—throughout the cell to the many cellular functions that demand energy, which include: synthesizing amino acids, proteins and cell membranes and parts, moving the cell and moving cell parts (both internally and intercellularly), dividing the cell, etc. In addition, nucleotides participate in cell signaling (cyclic guanosine monophosphate or cGMP and cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cAMP), and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions (e.g. coenzyme A, FAD, FMN, NAD, and NADP + ).
Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence that is specified by the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding this protein.

Pentose

pentose and glucuronate interconversionsaldopentoseketopentose
Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids; they are composed of three sub unit molecules: a nitrogenous base (also known as nucleobase), a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and at least one phosphate group.
Phosphorylated pentoses are important products of the pentose phosphate pathway, most importantly ribose 5-phosphate (R5P), which is used in the synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids, and erythrose 4-phosphate (E4P), which is used in the synthesis of aromatic amino acids.

Flavin adenine dinucleotide

FADFADH 2 FADH2
They carry packets of chemical energy—in the form of the nucleoside triphosphates Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), Guanosine triphosphate (GTP), Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and Uridine triphosphate (UTP)—throughout the cell to the many cellular functions that demand energy, which include: synthesizing amino acids, proteins and cell membranes and parts, moving the cell and moving cell parts (both internally and intercellularly), dividing the cell, etc. In addition, nucleotides participate in cell signaling (cyclic guanosine monophosphate or cGMP and cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cAMP), and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions (e.g. coenzyme A, FAD, FMN, NAD, and NADP + ).
Flavin adenine dinucleotide consists of two main portions: an adenine nucleotide (adenosine monophosphate) and a flavin mononucleotide bridged together through their phosphate groups.

Cyclic nucleotide

cyclic nucleotidescyclic-nucleotideCyclic dinucleotides
Unlike in nucleic acid nucleotides, singular cyclic nucleotides are formed when the phosphate group is bound twice to the same sugar molecule, i.e., at the corners of the sugar hydroxyl groups.
A cyclic nucleotide (cNMP) is a single-phosphate nucleotide with a cyclic bond arrangement between the sugar and phosphate groups.

Transcription (biology)

transcriptiontranscribedtranscriptional
In a double helix, the two strands are oriented in opposite directions, which permits base pairing and complementarity between the base-pairs, all which is essential for replicating or transcribing the encoded information found in DNA.
Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language.

Nucleic acid double helix

double helixminor grooveB-DNA
These chain-joins of sugar and phosphate molecules create a 'backbone' strand for a single- or double helix.
The DNA double helix biopolymer of nucleic acid, held together by nucleotides which base pair together.

Complementarity (molecular biology)

complementarycomplementaritycomplement
In a double helix, the two strands are oriented in opposite directions, which permits base pairing and complementarity between the base-pairs, all which is essential for replicating or transcribing the encoded information found in DNA.
In nature complementarity is the base principle of DNA replication and transcription as it is a property shared between two DNA or RNA sequences, such that when they are aligned antiparallel to each other, the nucleotide bases at each position in the sequences will be complementary, much like looking in the mirror and seeing the reverse of things.

Directionality (molecular biology)

533' end
In any one strand, the chemical orientation (directionality) of the chain-joins runs from the 5'-end to the 3'-end (read: 5 prime-end to 3 prime-end)—referring to the five carbon sites on sugar molecules in adjacent nucleotides.
In a single strand of DNA or RNA, the chemical convention of naming carbon atoms in the nucleotide sugar-ring means that there will be a 5′-end (usually pronounced "five prime end" ), which frequently contains a phosphate group attached to the 5′ carbon of the ribose ring, and a 3′-end (usually pronounced "three prime end"), which typically is unmodified from the ribose -OH substituent.

RNA world

RNA world hypothesisorganisms based on RNAancestral world of RNA
They are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Further, while nucleotides were not found in experiments based on Miller-Urey experiment, their formation in prebiotically plausible conditions was reported in 2009; the purine base known as adenine is merely a pentamer of hydrogen cyanide.

DNA replication

replicationreplication forklagging strand
In a double helix, the two strands are oriented in opposite directions, which permits base pairing and complementarity between the base-pairs, all which is essential for replicating or transcribing the encoded information found in DNA.
Most prominently, DNA polymerase synthesizes the new strands by adding nucleotides that complement each (template) strand.

Nucleotide salvage

salvage pathwaypurine salvage pathwaysalvage pathways
In vivo, nucleotides can be synthesized de novo or recycled through salvage pathways.
A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides (purine and pyrimidine) are synthesized from intermediates in the degradative pathway for nucleotides.

Deoxyribose

2-deoxyribose-deoxyriboseDeoxyribofuranose
Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids; they are composed of three sub unit molecules: a nitrogenous base (also known as nucleobase), a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and at least one phosphate group.
The DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule, which is the main repository of genetic information in life, consists of a long chain of deoxyribose-containing units called nucleotides, linked via phosphate groups.

De novo synthesis

de novode novo'' synthesissynthesized ''de novo
In vivo, nucleotides can be synthesized de novo or recycled through salvage pathways.
For example, nucleotides are not needed in the diet as they can be constructed from small precursor molecules such as formate and aspartate.

Nitrogenous base

basesnitrogen-containingnatural bases
Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids; they are composed of three sub unit molecules: a nitrogenous base (also known as nucleobase), a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and at least one phosphate group.
A set of five nitrogenous bases is used in the construction of nucleotides, which in turn build up nucleic acids like DNA and RNA.