Numeral (linguistics)

numeralnumeralsnumber namescounting systemcollective numeralnumber systembase-6 numeral systemcardinal numbersnumber wordnumber words
In linguistics, a numeral (or number word) in the broadest sense is a word or phrase that describes a numerical quantity.wikipedia
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Romanian numbers

Romanian distributive numbersabovenumber six in the Romanian language
Georgian, Latin, and Romanian (see Romanian distributive numbers) have regular distributive numbers, such as Latin singuli "one-by-one", bini "in pairs, two-by-two", terni "three each", etc. In languages other than English, there may be other kinds of number words.
The Romanian numbers are the system of number names used in Romanian to express counts, quantities, ranks in ordered sets, fractions, multiplication, and other information related to numbers.

Quantifier (linguistics)

quantifiersquantifierquantification
Such words are called quantifiers.
In linguistics and grammar, a quantifier is a type of determiner, such as all, some, many, few, a lot, and no, (but not specific numerals) that indicates quantity.

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
In English grammar, the classification "numeral" (viewed as a part of speech) is reserved for those words which have distinct grammatical behavior: when a numeral modifies a noun, it may replace the article: the/some dogs played in the park → twelve dogs played in the park.
Commonly listed English parts of speech are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, interjection, and sometimes numeral, article, or determiner.

Chinese numerals

Chinese numeralChineseChinese numeral characters
In many languages, such as Chinese, numerals require the use of numeral classifiers.
The more familiar indigenous system is based on Chinese characters that correspond to numerals in the spoken language.

Ordinal numeral

ordinal numberordinal numbersordinal
In linguistics, however, numerals are classified according to purpose: examples are ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.; from 'third' up, these are also used for fractions), multiplicative numbers (once, twice, and thrice), multipliers (single, double, and triple), and distributive numbers (singly, doubly, and triply).
In traditional grammar, all numerals, including ordinal numerals, are grouped into a separate part of speech (nomen numerale, hence, "noun numeral" in older English grammar books); however, in modern interpretations of English grammar, ordinal numerals are usually conflated with adjectives.

Polish grammar

PolishPolish declensionPolish numerals
For example, in Slavic languages there are collective numbers which describe sets, such as pair or dozen in English (see Russian numerals, Polish numerals).
Distinctive features include the different treatment of masculine personal nouns in the plural, and the complex grammar of numerals and quantifiers.

Classifier (linguistics)

classifierclassifiersnumeral classifier
In many languages, such as Chinese, numerals require the use of numeral classifiers.
In languages that have classifiers, they are often used when the noun is being counted, that is, when it appears with a numeral.

Japanese numerals

JapaneseJapanese numeralJapanese numbers
An example is Japanese, which uses either native or Chinese-derived numerals depending on what is being counted.
The system of Japanese numerals is the system of number names used in the Japanese language.

Attributive

Numerals may be attributive, as in two dogs, or pronominal, as in I saw two (of them).
or other part of speech, such as an attributive numeral.

English numerals

Names of numbers in Englishcardinal numbersEnglish-language numerals
See English numerals or names of large numbers for more information on naming numbers.
English number words include numerals and various words derived from them, as well as a large number of words borrowed from other languages.

Cardinal numeral

cardinal numbercardinal numberscardinal
(Note that *dozen dogs played in the park is not grammatical, so "dozen" is not a numeral in this sense.) English numerals indicate cardinal numbers.
Cardinal numbers are classified as definite numerals and are related to ordinal numbers, such as first, second, third, etc.

Hindustani numerals

Hindustani
In Hindustani, the numerals between 10 and 100 have developed to the extent that they need to be learned independently.
Like many Indo-Aryan languages, Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu) has a decimal numeral system that is contracted to the extent that nearly every number 1–99 is irregular, and needs to be memorized as a separate numeral.

Determiner

determinersDeterminer (linguistics)definite determiner
Some theories of grammar use the word "numeral" to refer to cardinal numbers that act as a determiner to specify the quantity of a noun, for example the "two" in "two hats".
Quantifiers only indicate a vague quantity of objects, not a specific number, such as twelve, dozen, first, single, or once, which would be considered numerals.

Multiplier (linguistics)

multipliermultipliersmultiplier numeral
In linguistics, however, numerals are classified according to purpose: examples are ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.; from 'third' up, these are also used for fractions), multiplicative numbers (once, twice, and thrice), multipliers (single, double, and triple), and distributive numbers (singly, doubly, and triply).

Names of large numbers

quintillionsextillionquadrillion
See English numerals or names of large numbers for more information on naming numbers. In English, these higher words are hundred 10 2, thousand 10 3, million 10 6, and higher powers of a thousand (short scale) or of a million (long scale—see names of large numbers).

Proto-Indo-European numerals

Indo-EuropeannumeralsProto-Indo-European
The numerals and derived numbers of the Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) have been reconstructed by modern linguists based on similarities found across all Indo-European languages.

Numeral prefix

numerical prefixbi-tetra-
Numeral or number prefixes are prefixes derived from numerals or occasionally other numbers.

Yuki people

YukiYuki tribeHuchnom
Examples can be found in the Yuki language of California and in the Pamean languages of Mexico, because the Yuki and Pame keep count by using the four spaces between their fingers rather than the fingers themselves.
The Yuki people had a quaternary (4-based) counting system, based on counting the spaces between the fingers, rather than the fingers themselves.

Kanum language

KanumBedi NgkolmpuNgkolmpu
Examples are Kanum and Kómnzo.
Kanum has a base-6 numeral system, which is typologically rare among languages of the world.

Janji language

Janjijni
Janji has, or had, a duodecimal number system.

Korean numerals

Koreannumbering systemKorea
The Korean language has two regularly used sets of numerals, a native Korean system and Sino-Korean system.

Vigesimal

base 2020base-20
This table shows the Maya numerals and the number names in Yucatec Maya, Nahuatl in modern orthography and in Classical Nahuatl.

Balinese numerals

The Balinese language has an elaborate decimal numeral system.

Javanese numerals

Javanese
The Javanese language has a decimal numeral system with distinct words for the 'tweens' from 21 to 29, called likuran.

Gbiri-Niragu language

Gbiri-NiraguKahuguGbiri
Gbiri-Niragu has, or had, a duodecimal number system.