Nuremberg Laws

Nuremberg Race LawsNuremberg racial lawsReich Citizenship LawNuremburg Lawsrace laws1935 Nuremberg racial hygiene lawsanti-Jewish lawsHalf-JewishLaw for the Protection of German Blood and HonorLegislation to remove the Jews from civil society
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racist laws in Nazi Germany.wikipedia
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Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racist laws in Nazi Germany.
These measures culminated in the establishment of the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, which stripped them of their basic rights.

1936 Summer Olympics

19361936 Berlin Olympics1936 Olympics
Out of foreign policy concerns, prosecutions under the two laws did not commence until after the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in Berlin.
The 1935 Nuremberg Laws, passed during the period Fürstner was overseeing the Olympic Village, had classified him as a Jew, and as such, the career officer was to be expelled from the Wehrmacht.

Final Solution

Final Solution to the Jewish QuestionThe Final SolutionEndlösung
Mass deportation schemes such as the Madagascar Plan proved to be impossible for the Nazis to carry out, and starting in mid-1941, the German government started mass exterminations of the Jews of Europe.
According to the Nazi Party policy statement, the Jews and Gypsies (although numerically fewer), were the only "alien people in Europe".

Reichstag (Nazi Germany)

ReichstagNazi ReichstagGerman Government
They were enacted by the Reichstag on 15 September 1935, at a special meeting convened during the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Reichstag only met 12 times between 1933 and 1939, and enacted only four laws—the Law for the Reconstruction of the Reich of 1934 (which turned Germany into a highly centralized state) and the three Nuremberg Laws of 1935.

Antisemitism

anti-Semitismanti-Semiticantisemitic
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racist laws in Nazi Germany.
In September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws prohibited sexual relations and marriages between "Aryans" and Jews as Rassenschande ("race disgrace") and stripped all German Jews, even quarter- and half-Jews, of their citizenship, (their official title became "subjects of the state").

Nazi Party

NSDAPNazisNazi
They were enacted by the Reichstag on 15 September 1935, at a special meeting convened during the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Even before it had become legally forbidden by the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, the Nazis banned sexual relations and marriages between party members and Jews.

Rudolf Hess

Deputy FührerRudolf HeßHess
While imprisoned in 1924 after the failed Beer Hall Putsch, Hitler dictated Mein Kampf to his deputy, Rudolf Hess.
In addition to appearing on Hitler's behalf at speaking engagements and rallies, Hess signed into law much of the government's legislation, including the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, which stripped the Jews of Germany of their rights in the lead-up to the Holocaust.

Racism

racistracial prejudiceracial discrimination
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racist laws in Nazi Germany.
Race based U.S. citizenship laws and anti-miscegenation laws (no race mixing) directly inspired the Nazi's two principal Nuremberg racial laws – the Citizenship Law and the Blood Law.

Nuremberg Rally

Nuremberg RalliesReichsparteitagNazi Party Congress
They were enacted by the Reichstag on 15 September 1935, at a special meeting convened during the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

Foreign races

foreign raceforeignforeign nations
The Nazi Party advocated the concept of a Volksgemeinschaft ("people's community") with the aim of uniting all Germans as national comrades, whilst excluding those deemed either to be community aliens or of a foreign race (Fremdvölkische).
Foreign races (German: Fremdvölkische) was a term used during the Nazi era to describe people who were not of "German or related blood" (Nuremberg Laws).

Wilhelm Frick

FRICKDr. Wilhelm FrickFRICK, Wilhelm
The Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick announced on 25 July that a law forbidding marriages between Jews and non-Jews would shortly be promulgated, and recommended that registrars should avoid issuing licences for such marriages for the time being.
He was instrumental in formulating laws that consolidated the Nazi regime (Gleichschaltung), as well as laws that defined the Nazi racial policy, most notoriously the Nuremberg Laws.

Romani people

RomaniRomaGypsy
The laws were expanded on 26 November 1935 to include Romani people and Black people.
In 1935, the Nuremberg laws stripped the Romani people living in Nazi Germany of their citizenship, after which they were subjected to violence, imprisonment in concentration camps and later genocide in extermination camps.

Heinrich Himmler

HimmlerAlfred HimmlerH Himmler
In December 1938 Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler issued an order for "combatting the Gypsy plague".
On 15 September 1935, Hitler presented two laws—known as the Nuremberg Laws—to the Reichstag.

Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses

boycottsnational boycott of Jewish businessesApril boycott
Chancellor and Führer (leader) Adolf Hitler declared a national boycott of Jewish businesses on 1 April 1933, and the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, passed on 7 April, excluded non-Aryans from the legal profession and civil service.
In 1935, the Nazis passed the Nuremberg Laws, stripping all Jews of their German citizenship, regardless of where they were born.

Jews

JewishJewJewish people
The two laws were the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, which forbade marriages and extramarital intercourse between Jews and Germans and the employment of German females under 45 in Jewish households, and the Reich Citizenship Law, which declared that only those of German or related blood were eligible to be Reich citizens.
Legislation to remove the Jews from civil society was enacted years before the outbreak of World War II.

Mischling

Mischlingehalf-Jewsfirst-degree Jewish hybrids
While both the Interior Ministry and the Nazi Party agreed that persons with three or more Jewish grandparents would be classed as being Jewish and those with only one (Mischlinge of the second degree) would not, a debate arose as to the status of persons with two Jewish grandparents (Mischlinge of the first degree).

Bernhard Lösener

Bernhard Loesener
Franz Albrecht Medicus and Bernhard Lösener of the Interior Ministry were summoned to Nuremberg and directed to start preparing a draft of a law forbidding sexual relations or marriages between Jews and non-Jews.
Along with Wilhelm Stuckart, he helped draft the Nuremberg Laws, among other legislation that deprived German Jews of their rights and ultimately led to their deportation to concentration camps.

Rassenschande

racial defilementrace defilementblood defilement
Persons suspected of having sexual relations with non-Aryans were charged with Rassenschande (racial defilement) and tried in the regular courts.
It was put into practice by policies like the Aryan certificate requirement, and later the Nuremberg Laws, adopted unanimously by the Reichstag on 15 September 1935.

Adolf Hitler

HitlerFührerthe leader
Chancellor and Führer (leader) Adolf Hitler declared a national boycott of Jewish businesses on 1 April 1933, and the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, passed on 7 April, excluded non-Aryans from the legal profession and civil service.
On 15 September 1935, Hitler presented two laws—known as the Nuremberg Laws—to the Reichstag.

The Holocaust

HolocaustShoahNazi Holocaust
The total number of Jews murdered during the resulting Holocaust is estimated at 5.5 to 6 million people.
After the passing of the Enabling Act on 24 March, which gave Hitler plenary powers, the government began isolating Jews from civil society; this included boycotting Jewish businesses in April 1933 and enacting the Nuremberg Laws in September 1935.

Romani genocide

PorajmosRomaniRomani people
Estimates of the death toll of Romanis in the Porajmos range from 150,000 to 1,500,000.
Under Adolf Hitler, a supplementary decree to the Nuremberg Laws was issued on 26 November 1935, classifying Gypsies as "enemies of the race-based state", thereby placing them in the same category as the Jews.

Aryanization

aryanizedAryanisationAryanised
This was part of the ongoing Aryanization process (the transfer of Jewish firms to non-Jewish owners, usually at prices far below market value) that the regime had initiated in 1933, which intensified after the Nuremberg Laws were passed.
Starting in 1933, through the Aryan paragraph and later the Nuremberg Laws, Jews were largely excluded from public life.

Aryan certificate

Ariernachweisnon-AryanAryan ancestry
Proof of Aryan descent was achieved by obtaining an Aryan certificate.
It was also a primary requirement to become a Reich citizen, for those who were of German or related blood (Aryan) and wanted to become Reich citizens after the Nuremberg Laws were passed in 1935.

Anschluss

annexation of AustriaAnschlußannexation
Jews and Gypsies were not allowed to vote in Reichstag elections or the Anschluss.
In contrast, Hitler had lowered the voting age for German elections held under Nazi rule, largely to compensate for the removal of Jews and other ethnic minorities from the German electorate following enactment of the Nuremberg Laws in 1935.

Jewish Question

Jewish problemthe Jewish questionIsraelite question
A Gestapo report from early 1935 stated that the rank and file of the Nazi Party would set in motion a solution to the "Jewish problem ... from below that the government would then have to follow".
The next stage was the persecution of the Jews and the stripping of their citizenship through the Nuremberg Laws.