Nuremberg trials

NurembergInternational Military TribunalNuremberg TrialNuremberg TribunalNuremberg War Crimes TribunalNuremberg War Crimes TrialsNuremberg War TrialsInternational Military Tribunal at Nurembergtrial at NurembergNuremberg war-crimes trials
The Nuremberg trials (Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held after World War II by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war.wikipedia
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Norman Birkett, 1st Baron Birkett

Norman BirkettLord BirkettSir Norman Birkett
It was described as "the greatest trial in history" by Sir Norman Birkett, one of the British judges present throughout.
William Norman Birkett, 1st Baron Birkett, (6 September 1883 – 10 February 1962) was a British barrister, judge, politician and preacher who served as the alternate British judge during the Nuremberg Trials.

Robert Ley

LEY, RobertDr. Robert Ley
Another defendant, Robert Ley, committed suicide within a week of the trial's commencement.
He committed suicide while awaiting trial at Nuremberg for war crimes.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
The Nuremberg trials (Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held after World War II by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war.
Tribunals were set up by the Allies, and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and against the Japanese.

Nuremberg

NürnbergNuremberg, GermanyNüremberg
The trials were held in Nuremberg, Germany, and their decisions marked a turning point between classical and contemporary international law.
Nuremberg was the site of major Nazi rallies, and it provided the site for the Nuremberg trials, which held to account many major Nazi officials.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
The trials were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, judicial, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany, who planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in the Holocaust and other war crimes.
The victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.

Martin Bormann

BormannMartin BormanBORMANN, Martin
Martin Bormann had, unknown to the Allies, died in May 1945 and was tried in absentia.
The missing Bormann was tried in absentia by the International Military Tribunal in the Nuremberg trials of 1945 and 1946.

The Holocaust

HolocaustShoahNazi Holocaust
The trials were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, judicial, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany, who planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in the Holocaust and other war crimes.
Twenty-three senior physicians and other medical personnel were charged at Nuremberg, after the war, with crimes against humanity.

War of aggression

wars of aggressionaggressionaggressive war
The categorization of the crimes and the constitution of the court represented a juridical advance that would be followed afterward by the United Nations for the development of an international jurisprudence in matters of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and wars of aggression, and led to the creation of the International Criminal Court.
In the judgment of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, which followed World War II, "War is essentially an evil thing. Its consequences are not confined to the belligerent states alone, but affect the whole world. To initiate a war of aggression, therefore, is not only an international crime; it is the supreme international crime differing only from other war crimes in that it contains within itself the accumulated evil of the whole."

Hermann Göring

GöringHermann GoeringGoering
Hermann Göring was sentenced to death but committed suicide by swallowing cyanide the night before his execution.
After the war, Göring was convicted of conspiracy, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg trials.

Judges' Trial

Justice CaseNurembergNuremberg War Crimes Trial
10 at the U.S. Nuremberg Military Tribunal (NMT), which included the Doctors' trial and the Judges' Trial.
These twelve trials were all held before U.S. military courts, not before the International Military Tribunal, but took place in the same rooms at the Palace of Justice.

Law of war

laws of warjus in bellorules of war
The Nuremberg trials (Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held after World War II by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war.
The opposite of positive laws of war is customary laws of war, many of which were explored at the Nuremberg War Trials.

International Criminal Court

ICCICCtAssembly of States Parties
The categorization of the crimes and the constitution of the court represented a juridical advance that would be followed afterward by the United Nations for the development of an international jurisprudence in matters of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and wars of aggression, and led to the creation of the International Criminal Court.
The International Military Tribunal, which sat in Nuremberg, prosecuted German leaders while the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo prosecuted Japanese leaders.

Genocide

genocidalexterminationgenocides
the Nuremberg indictments also mention genocide (count three, war crimes: "the extermination of racial and national groups, against the civilian populations of certain occupied territories in order to destroy particular races and classes of people and national, racial, or religious groups, particularly Jews, Poles, and Gypsies and others.")
The word genocide was used in indictments at the Nuremberg trials, held from 1945, but solely as a descriptive term, not yet as a formal legal term.

War crime

war crimeswar criminalwar criminals
The trials were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, judicial, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany, who planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in the Holocaust and other war crimes. The categorization of the crimes and the constitution of the court represented a juridical advance that would be followed afterward by the United Nations for the development of an international jurisprudence in matters of war crimes, crimes against humanity, and wars of aggression, and led to the creation of the International Criminal Court.
The modern concept of war crime was further developed under the auspices of the Nuremberg Trials based on the definition in the London Charter that was published on August 8, 1945.

Telford Taylor

General Telford TaylorTaylor, Telford
Assisting Jackson were the lawyers Telford Taylor, William S. Kaplan and Thomas J. Dodd, and Richard Sonnenfeldt, a US Army interpreter.
Telford Taylor (February 24, 1908 – May 23, 1998) was an American lawyer best known for his role as Counsel for the Prosecution at the Nuremberg Trials after World War II, his opposition to Senator Joseph McCarthy in the 1950s, and his outspoken criticism of U.S. actions during the Vietnam War in the 1960s and 1970s.

Geoffrey Lawrence, 1st Baron Oaksey

Lord OakseyGeoffrey LawrenceSir Geoffrey Lawrence
While Sir Geoffrey Lawrence of Britain was the judge chosen as president of the court, the most prominent of the judges at trial arguably was his American counterpart, Francis Biddle.
Geoffrey Lawrence, 3rd Baron Trevethin, 1st Baron Oaksey, (2 December 1880 – 28 August 1971) was the main British judge during the Nuremberg trials after World War II, and President of the Judicial group.

Francis Biddle

Francis Beverly BiddleAttorney General BiddleBiddle
Francis Beverley Biddle (May 9, 1886 – October 4, 1968) was an American lawyer and judge who was Attorney General of the United States during World War II and who served as the primary American judge during the postwar Nuremberg trials.

Camp Ashcan

ASHCAN
Most of the accused had previously been detained at Camp Ashcan, a processing station and interrogation center in Luxembourg, and were moved to Nuremberg for the trial.
Operating from May to August 1945, it served as a processing station and interrogation center for the 86 most prominent surviving Nazi leaders prior to their trial in Nuremberg, including Hermann Göring and Karl Dönitz.

David Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir

David Maxwell FyfeSir David Maxwell FyfeLord Kilmuir
Assisting Shawcross were Major Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe and Sir John Wheeler-Bennett.
One of the prosecutors at the Nuremberg Trials, he was instrumental in drafting the European Convention on Human Rights.

Henri Donnedieu de Vabres

Henri Donnedieu de Vabres (8 July 1880 – 14 February 1952) was a French jurist who took part in the Nuremberg trials after World War II.

Denazification

de-NazificationdenazifiedDefunct
Henry Morgenthau Jr., US Secretary of the Treasury, suggested a plan for the total denazification of Germany; this was known as the Morgenthau Plan.
In the case of the top-ranking Nazis, such as Göring, Hess, von Ribbentrop, Streicher, and Speer, the initial proposal by the British was to simply arrest them and shoot them, but that course of action was replaced by putting them on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg Trials in order to publicize their crimes while demonstrating that the trials and the sentences were just, especially to the German people.

John J. Parker

John Johnston ParkerJohn Parker
He was also the United State's alternate judge at the Nuremberg trials of accused Nazi war criminals and later served on the United Nations' International Law Commission.

Trial in absentia

in absentiatried ''in absentiatrial ''in absentia
Martin Bormann had, unknown to the Allies, died in May 1945 and was tried in absentia.

Anthony Marreco

Anthony Freire Marreco
Shawcross also recruited a young barrister, Anthony Marreco, who was the son of a friend of his, to help the British team with the heavy workload.
He was Junior Counsel at the Nuremberg Trials, and later a founding director of Amnesty International.

Hartley Shawcross

Sir Hartley ShawcrossLord ShawcrossHartley Shawcross, Baron Shawcross
Hartley William Shawcross, Baron Shawcross, (4 February 1902 – 10 July 2003), known from 1945 to 1959 as Sir Hartley Shawcross, was a British barrister and politician and the lead British prosecutor at the Nuremberg War Crimes tribunal.