Nutrient

nutrientsessential nutrientmacronutrientessential nutrientsmacronutrientsessentialmacroessential micronutrientmacro nutrientmicronutrients
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.wikipedia
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Vitamin

vitaminsfat-soluble vitaminsfat-soluble vitamin
Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids that are combined to create proteins, a subset of fatty acids, vitamins and certain minerals. Vitamins are organic compounds essential to the body. They usually act as coenzymes or cofactors for various proteins in the body.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) that is an essential micronutrient that an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism.

Vitamin C

ascorbic acidascorbateC
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is essential, meaning it must be consumed in sufficient amounts, to humans and some other animal species, but not to all animals and not to plants, which are able to synthesize it. Nutrients may be organic or inorganic: organic compounds include most compounds containing carbon, while all other chemicals are inorganic.
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters.

List of macronutrients

macronutrients
A classification used primarily to describe nutrient needs of animals divides nutrients into macronutrients and micronutrients. Calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride ions, along with phosphorus and sulfur, are listed with macronutrients because they are required in large quantities compared to micronutrients, i.e., vitamins and other minerals, the latter often described as trace or ultratrace minerals.
Macronutrients can refer to the chemical elements that humans consume in the largest quantities (See Nutrient)

Micronutrient

micronutrientselementsmicro
A classification used primarily to describe nutrient needs of animals divides nutrients into macronutrients and micronutrients. Calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride ions, along with phosphorus and sulfur, are listed with macronutrients because they are required in large quantities compared to micronutrients, i.e., vitamins and other minerals, the latter often described as trace or ultratrace minerals.
Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.

Fat

greasetotal fatdietary fat
Consumed in relatively large amounts (grams or ounces), macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water) are used primarily to generate energy or to incorporate into tissues for growth and repair. Fats consist of a glycerin molecule with three fatty acids attached. Fatty acid molecules contain a -COOH group attached to unbranched hydrocarbon chains connected by single bonds alone (saturated fatty acids) or by both double and single bonds (unsaturated fatty acids). Fats are needed for construction and maintenance of cell membranes, to maintain a stable body temperature, and to sustain the health of skin and hair. Because the body does not manufacture certain fatty acids (termed essential fatty acids), they must be obtained through one's diet.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with the other two: carbohydrate and protein.

Phytochemical

phytochemicalsphytonutrientsphytochemical screening
Edible plants also contain thousands of compounds generally called phytochemicals which have unknown effects on disease or health, including a diverse class with non-nutrient status called polyphenols, which remain poorly understood as of 2017.
As a term, phytochemicals is generally used to describe plant compounds that are under research with unestablished effects on health and are not scientifically defined as essential nutrients.

Plant

plantsfloraplant kingdom
The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animals, plants, fungi, and protists.
Plants usually rely on soil primarily for support and water (in quantitative terms), but they also obtain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and other elemental nutrients from the soil.

Water

H 2 Oliquid wateraqueous
They are sourced from inorganic matter (for example, carbon dioxide, water, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates, and diatomic molecules of nitrogen and, especially, oxygen) and organic matter (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins).
It is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic nutrients.

Sulfur

sulphurSbrimstone
In addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur are also needed in relatively large quantities.
Sulfur is one of the core chemical elements needed for biochemical functioning and is an elemental macronutrient for all living organisms.

Mineral (nutrient)

mineralsdietary mineralsdietary mineral
Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids that are combined to create proteins, a subset of fatty acids, vitamins and certain minerals.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Consumed in relatively large amounts (grams or ounces), macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water) are used primarily to generate energy or to incorporate into tissues for growth and repair. They are sourced from inorganic matter (for example, carbon dioxide, water, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates, and diatomic molecules of nitrogen and, especially, oxygen) and organic matter (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins). Some nutrients can be metabolically converted to smaller molecules in the process of releasing energy, such as for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and fermentation products (ethanol or vinegar), leading to end-products of water and carbon dioxide. Carbohydrates are compounds made up of types of sugar. Carbohydrates are classified according to their number of sugar units: monosaccharides (such as glucose and fructose), disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose), oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides (such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose).
Carbohydrates are a common source of energy in living organisms; however, no single carbohydrate is an essential nutrient in humans.

Potassium

KK + potassium ion
Calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride ions, along with phosphorus and sulfur, are listed with macronutrients because they are required in large quantities compared to micronutrients, i.e., vitamins and other minerals, the latter often described as trace or ultratrace minerals. The essential nutrient elements for humans, listed in order of Recommended Dietary Allowance (expressed as a mass), are potassium, chlorine, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, iodine, chromium, molybdenum, selenium and cobalt (the last as a component of vitamin B 12 ).
Apart from dating, potassium isotopes have been used as tracers in studies of weathering and for nutrient cycling studies because potassium is a macronutrient required for life.

Life

livinglife on Earthbiota
Together, the "Big Six" are the elemental macronutrients for all organisms.
The inert components of an ecosystem are the physical and chemical factors necessary for life—energy (sunlight or chemical energy), water, heat, atmosphere, gravity, nutrients, and ultraviolet solar radiation protection.

Cofactor (biochemistry)

cofactorcofactorscoenzyme
Vitamins are organic compounds essential to the body. They usually act as coenzymes or cofactors for various proteins in the body.
Cofactors can be subclassified as either inorganic ions or complex organic molecules called coenzymes, the latter of which is mostly derived from vitamins and other organic essential nutrients in small amounts.

Niacin

nicotinic acidnicotinatevitamin B 3
Humans require thirteen vitamins in their diet, most of which are actually groups of related molecules (e.g. vitamin E includes tocopherols and tocotrienols): vitamins A, C, D, E, K, thiamine (B 1 ), riboflavin (B 2 ), niacin (B 3 ), pantothenic acid (B 5 ), vitamin B 6 (e.g., pyridoxine), biotin (B 7 ), folate (B 9 ), and cobalamin (B 12 ).
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

Vitamin B6

vitamin B 6 vitamin B 6 metabolismB 6
Humans require thirteen vitamins in their diet, most of which are actually groups of related molecules (e.g. vitamin E includes tocopherols and tocotrienols): vitamins A, C, D, E, K, thiamine (B 1 ), riboflavin (B 2 ), niacin (B 3 ), pantothenic acid (B 5 ), vitamin B 6 (e.g., pyridoxine), biotin (B 7 ), folate (B 9 ), and cobalamin (B 12 ).
Vitamin B 6 is part of the vitamin B group of essential nutrients.

Essential amino acid

essential amino acidsessentialnon-essential amino acid
Proteins are organic compounds that consist of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Since the body cannot manufacture some of the amino acids (termed essential amino acids), the diet must supply them. Through digestion, proteins are broken down by proteases back into free amino acids.
Consequently, only a subset of the amino acids used in protein synthesis are essential nutrients.

Glycerol

glyceringlycerine1,2,3-propanetriol
Fats consist of a glycerin molecule with three fatty acids attached. Fatty acid molecules contain a -COOH group attached to unbranched hydrocarbon chains connected by single bonds alone (saturated fatty acids) or by both double and single bonds (unsaturated fatty acids). Fats are needed for construction and maintenance of cell membranes, to maintain a stable body temperature, and to sustain the health of skin and hair. Because the body does not manufacture certain fatty acids (termed essential fatty acids), they must be obtained through one's diet.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) carbohydrate designation includes all caloric macronutrients excluding protein and fat.

Reference Daily Intake

RDADaily ValueRDI
The essential nutrient elements for humans, listed in order of Recommended Dietary Allowance (expressed as a mass), are potassium, chlorine, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, iodine, chromium, molybdenum, selenium and cobalt (the last as a component of vitamin B 12 ).
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.

Pantothenic acid

vitamin B 5 calcium pantothenate(R)-pantothenate
Humans require thirteen vitamins in their diet, most of which are actually groups of related molecules (e.g. vitamin E includes tocopherols and tocotrienols): vitamins A, C, D, E, K, thiamine (B 1 ), riboflavin (B 2 ), niacin (B 3 ), pantothenic acid (B 5 ), vitamin B 6 (e.g., pyridoxine), biotin (B 7 ), folate (B 9 ), and cobalamin (B 12 ).
Pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient.

Folate

folic acidfolate biosynthesisone carbon pool by folate
Humans require thirteen vitamins in their diet, most of which are actually groups of related molecules (e.g. vitamin E includes tocopherols and tocotrienols): vitamins A, C, D, E, K, thiamine (B 1 ), riboflavin (B 2 ), niacin (B 3 ), pantothenic acid (B 5 ), vitamin B 6 (e.g., pyridoxine), biotin (B 7 ), folate (B 9 ), and cobalamin (B 12 ).
Folic acid is essential for the body to make DNA, RNA, and metabolise amino acids, which are required for cell division.

Chromium

Crchromechromium(III)
The essential nutrient elements for humans, listed in order of Recommended Dietary Allowance (expressed as a mass), are potassium, chlorine, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, iodine, chromium, molybdenum, selenium and cobalt (the last as a component of vitamin B 12 ).
In the United States, trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) ion is considered an essential nutrient in humans for insulin, sugar and lipid metabolism.

Fructose

fructose metabolism, inborn errors L -fructose-Fructose
Carbohydrates are compounds made up of types of sugar. Carbohydrates are classified according to their number of sugar units: monosaccharides (such as glucose and fructose), disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose), oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides (such as starch, glycogen, and cellulose).
Fructose powder is 100% carbohydrates and supplies no nutrients in significant content (table).

Dietary Reference Intake

Tolerable Upper Intake LevelRDArecommended daily allowance
Consumer advisories for dietary nutrient intakes, such as the United States Dietary Reference Intake, are based on deficiency outcomes and provide macronutrient and micronutrient guides for both lower and upper limits of intake.
Essential nutrient

Omega-3 fatty acid

omega-3omega-3 fatty acidsomega 3 fatty acid
Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for humans: alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid).
It is under study as a candidate essential nutrient with roles in neurodevelopment, cognition, and neurodegenerative disorders.