OLED

organic light-emitting diodeorganic light-emitting diodesOLEDsorganic light emitting diodeorganic light emitting diodesOrganic light-emitting diode (OLED)light emitting diodesOLED screensorganic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)POLED
An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current.wikipedia
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Display device

displayvideo monitorbezel
OLEDs are used to create digital displays in devices such as television screens, computer monitors, portable systems such as smartphones, handheld game consoles and PDAs.
OLED display used for the iPhone XS and XS Max

Solid-state lighting

solid state lightingemittingLED lighting
A major area of research is the development of white OLED devices for use in solid-state lighting applications.
Solid-state lighting (SSL) refers to a type of lighting that uses semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), or polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED) as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments, plasma (used in arc lamps such as fluorescent lamps), or gas.

Television set

television receivertelevisionstelevision screen
OLEDs are used to create digital displays in devices such as television screens, computer monitors, portable systems such as smartphones, handheld game consoles and PDAs.
As of the mid-2010s, LCDs overwhelmingly predominate in new merchandise, but OLED displays are claiming an increasing market share as they become more affordable and DLP technology continues to offer some advantages in projection systems.

Liquid-crystal display

LCDliquid crystal displayliquid crystal displays
Thus, it can display deep black levels and can be thinner and lighter than a liquid crystal display (LCD).
LCDs are slowly being replaced by OLEDs, which can be easily made into different shapes, and have a lower response time, wider color gamut, virtually infinite color contrast and viewing angles, lower weight for a given display size and a slimmer profile (because OLEDs use a single glass or plastic panel whereas LCDs use two glass panels; the thickness of the panels increases with size but the increase is more noticeable on LCDs) and potentially lower power consumption (as the display is only "on" where needed and there is no backlight).

Light-emitting electrochemical cell

Adding mobile ions to an OLED creates a light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) which has a slightly different mode of operation.
Aside from the mobile ions, their structure is very similar to that of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED).

Universal Display Corporation

Universal Display Corporation a developer and manufacturer based in the United States holds the majority of patents concerning the commercialization of OLEDs.
Universal Display Corporation (Nasdaq symbol OLED) is a developer and manufacturer of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) technologies and materials as well as provider of services to the display and lighting industries.

Computer monitor

monitorcomputer displaymonitors
OLEDs are used to create digital displays in devices such as television screens, computer monitors, portable systems such as smartphones, handheld game consoles and PDAs.
Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) monitors provide higher contrast and better viewing angles than LCDs but they require more power when displaying documents with white or bright backgrounds and have a severe problem known as burn-in.

Light-emitting diode

LEDLEDslight emitting diodes
An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current.
In an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), the electroluminescent material composing the emissive layer of the diode is an organic compound.

Steven Van Slyke

American physical chemist Ching W. Tang and Steven Van Slyke at Eastman Kodak built the first practical OLED device in 1987.
Steven Van Slyke (born July 19, 1956) is an American chemist, best known for his co-invention of the Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) and his contributions to the commercial development of OLED displays.

Smartphone

smartphonessmart phonesmart phones
OLEDs are used to create digital displays in devices such as television screens, computer monitors, portable systems such as smartphones, handheld game consoles and PDAs.
In 2018, the first smartphones featuring fingerprint readers embedded within OLED displays were announced.

Tetracene

naphthacenebenzanthracenes
Pope's group also first observed direct current (DC) electroluminescence under vacuum on a single pure crystal of anthracene and on anthracene crystals doped with tetracene in 1963 using a small area silver electrode at 400 volts.
Tetracene is a molecular organic semiconductor, used in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).

Martin Pope

In 1960 Martin Pope and some of his co-workers at New York University developed ohmic dark-injecting electrode contacts to organic crystals.
These discoveries have had application in electrophotography, organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), photovoltaic cells, biological sensors, transistors, molecular electronics and batteries.

Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode

Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes make use of spin–orbit interactions to facilitate intersystem crossing between singlet and triplet states, thus obtaining emission from both singlet and triplet states and improving the internal efficiency.
Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLED) are a type of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) that use the principle of phosphorescence to obtain higher internal efficiencies than fluorescent OLEDs.

Ching W. Tang

Ching Tang
American physical chemist Ching W. Tang and Steven Van Slyke at Eastman Kodak built the first practical OLED device in 1987.
Tang is the inventor of several groundbreaking electronic devices, including the organic light-emitting diode (OLED), and the hetero-junction organic photovoltaic cell (OPV).

Organic electronics

plastic electronicsorganic electronicorganic
Subsequent research developed multilayer polymers and the new field of plastic electronics and OLED research and device production grew rapidly.
Subsequent research developed multilayer polymers and the new field of plastic electronics and organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) research and device production grew rapidly.

Indium tin oxide

ITOindium tin oxide (ITO)InSnO
Indium tin oxide (ITO) is commonly used as the anode material.
Thin films of ITO are also used in organic light-emitting diodes, solar cells, antistatic coatings and EMI shieldings.

Kodak

Eastman KodakEastman Kodak CompanyEastman
American physical chemist Ching W. Tang and Steven Van Slyke at Eastman Kodak built the first practical OLED device in 1987.
December 4, 2009: Kodak sold its organic light-emitting diode (OLED) business unit to LG Electronics, resulting in the lay-off of 60 people.

Rubrene

Fluorescent dyes can be chosen to obtain light emission at different wavelengths, and compounds such as perylene, rubrene and quinacridone derivatives are often used.
As an organic semiconductor, the major application of rubrene is in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors, which are the core elements of flexible displays.

Plasma display

plasmaplasma screenplasma TV
Lower cost in the future: OLEDs can be printed onto any suitable substrate by an inkjet printer or even by screen printing, theoretically making them cheaper to produce than LCD or plasma displays. However, fabrication of the OLED substrate is currently more costly than that of a TFT LCD. Roll-to-roll vapor-deposition methods for organic devices do allow mass production of thousands of devices per minute for minimal cost; however, this technique also induces problems: devices with multiple layers can be challenging to make because of registration - lining up the different printed layers to the required degree of accuracy.
Since then, they have lost nearly all market share due to competition from low-cost LCD displays and more expensive but high-contrast OLED flat-panel displays.

Conductive polymer

conducting polymerconductive polymersconducting polymers
Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED, P-OLED), also light-emitting polymers (LEP), involve an electroluminescent conductive polymer that emits light when connected to an external voltage.
Since the late 1980s, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as an important application of conducting polymers.

Flexible organic light-emitting diode

flexibleflexible OLEDdisplay
Lightweight and flexible plastic substrates: OLED displays can be fabricated on flexible plastic substrates, leading to the possible fabrication of flexible organic light-emitting diodes for other new applications, such as roll-up displays embedded in fabrics or clothing. If a substrate like polyethylene terephthalate (PET) can be used, the displays may be produced inexpensively. Furthermore, plastic substrates are shatter-resistant, unlike the glass displays used in LCD devices.
A flexible organic light-emitting diode (FOLED) is a type of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) incorporating a flexible plastic substrate on which the electroluminescent organic semiconductor is deposited.

Head-up display

HUDheads-up displayheads up display
Transparent OLEDs: Transparent OLEDs use transparent or semi-transparent contacts on both sides of the device to create displays that can be made to be both top and bottom emitting (transparent). TOLEDs can greatly improve contrast, making it much easier to view displays in bright sunlight. This technology can be used in Head-up displays, smart windows or augmented reality applications.
Newer micro-display imaging technologies are being introduced, including liquid crystal display (LCD), liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS), digital micro-mirrors (DMD), and organic light-emitting diode (OLED).

Active matrix

active-matrixactive matrix addressingactive addressing
An OLED display can be driven with a passive-matrix (PMOLED) or active-matrix (AMOLED) control scheme.
Today, virtually all TVs, computer monitors and smartphone screens that use LCD or OLED technology employ active matrix technology.

André Bernanose

André Bernanose and co-workers at the Nancy-Université in France made the first observations of electroluminescence in organic materials in the early 1950s.
He is for this reason considered the father of the OLED.

Electroluminescence

electroluminescentELelectroluminescent panel
An organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound that emits light in response to an electric current. Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLED, P-OLED), also light-emitting polymers (LEP), involve an electroluminescent conductive polymer that emits light when connected to an external voltage. André Bernanose and co-workers at the Nancy-Université in France made the first observations of electroluminescence in organic materials in the early 1950s.
OLED