OS/2

OS/2 Warp 4 desktop. This version was released on 25 September 1996.
OS/2 Warp 4 desktop. This version was released on 25 September 1996.
OS/2 1.0 featured a text-mode interface similar to MS-DOS.
OS/2 1.1 was the first version to feature the Presentation Manager GUI.
Installation Disk A of Microsoft OS/2 1.3 (3½-inch floppy disk)
OS/2 1.3 was the final 16-bit only version of OS/2, and the last to be sold by Microsoft.
OS/2 2.0 was the first 32-bit release of OS/2, and the first to feature the Workplace Shell.
The OS/2 2.0 upgrade box
OS/2 Warp Connect 3.0, showing the Windows 3.1 Program Manager, QBASIC in a DOS window, and the LaunchPad (bottom center)
Firefox 3.5.4 for OS/2 Warp 4
OS/2 Warp 4 desktop after installation
ArcaOS is the most recent OS/2-based operating system developed outside of IBM.
OS/2 Window (cmd.exe) on Microsoft OS/2 Version 1.3
An ATM in Australia revealing during a reboot that it is based on OS/2 Warp

Series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci.

- OS/2
OS/2 Warp 4 desktop. This version was released on 25 September 1996.

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An assortment of PS/2s in various form factors

IBM PS/2

IBM's second generation of personal computers.

IBM's second generation of personal computers.

An assortment of PS/2s in various form factors
An assortment of PS/2s in various form factors
The original IBM PS/2 mouse
PS/2 connection ports (later colored purple for keyboard and green for mouse, according to PC 97) were once commonly used for connecting input devices.
MCA IBM XGA-2 Graphics Card
Some PS/2 models used a quick-attachment socket on the back of the floppy drive which is incompatible with a standard 5.25" floppy connector.
Close-up of unusual 72-pin MCA internal hard drive connector
3.5" DD and HD floppies
Case badge on model 25-SX 386-20 8525-L41
IBM Personal System/2 Model 25
The externally very similar Models 60 and 80 next to each other
IBM Model 70 (case open over case closed)
PS/2 N33SX laptop (1992)

The OS/2 operating system was announced at the same time as the PS/2 line and was intended to be the primary operating system for models with Intel 80286 or later processors.

IBM Db2

Family of data management products, including database servers, developed by IBM.

Family of data management products, including database servers, developed by IBM.

Later, IBM brought DB2 to other platforms, including OS/2, UNIX, and MS Windows servers, and then Linux (including Linux on IBM Z) and PDAs.

ArcaOS 5.0.5 desktop

ArcaOS

ArcaOS 5.0.5 desktop
ArcaOS 5.0.5 desktop
Some of the open source software included with ArcaOS - Firefox, Lucide, 4OS2, PMDCalc Plus
Some of the compatibility subsystems in ArcaOS - a Bash shell (bottom left), QBASIC in a DOS window (middle), and the Windows 3.1 Program Manager (top right)
The hardware configuration screen from the ArcaOS installer

ArcaOS is an operating system based on OS/2, developed and marketed by Arca Noae, LLC under license from IBM.

Windows NT

Proprietary graphical operating system produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released on July 27, 1993.

Proprietary graphical operating system produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released on July 27, 1993.

Original Windows NT wordmark
Windows 2000 architecture

However, the project was originally intended as a follow-on to OS/2 and was referred to as "NT OS/2" before receiving the Windows brand.

IBM PC DOS command line

IBM PC DOS

Acronym for IBM Personal Computer Disk Operating System, is a discontinued disk operating system for IBM PC compatibles.

Acronym for IBM Personal Computer Disk Operating System, is a discontinued disk operating system for IBM PC compatibles.

IBM PC DOS command line
User manual and diskette for IBM PC DOS 1.1

On 2 April 1987 OS/2 was announced as the first product produced under the agreement.

A pair of AMD BIOS chips for a Dell 310 computer from the 1980s

BIOS

Firmware used to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs and to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup).

Firmware used to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs and to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup).

A pair of AMD BIOS chips for a Dell 310 computer from the 1980s
Boot process
BIOS chips in a Dell 310 that were updated by replacing the chips
Award BIOS setup utility on a standard PC
BIOS replacement kit for a Dell 310 from the late 1980s. Included are two chips, a plastic holder for the chips, and a chip puller.
American Megatrends BIOS 686. This BIOS chip is housed in a PLCC package in a socket.
Compaq Portable 386 BIOS
An American Megatrends BIOS showing an "Intel CPU uCode Loading Error" after a failed attempt to upload microcode patches into the CPU
A detached BIOS chip

The real-mode portion was meant to provide backward compatibility with existing operating systems such as DOS, and therefore was named "CBIOS" (for "Compatibility BIOS"), whereas the "ABIOS" (for "Advanced BIOS") provided new interfaces specifically suited for multitasking operating systems such as OS/2.

Screenshot of Microsoft Windows 3.0

Windows 3.0

Third major release of Microsoft Windows, launched in 1990.

Third major release of Microsoft Windows, launched in 1990.

Screenshot of Microsoft Windows 3.0
Screenshot of Microsoft Windows 3.0

The two companies developed the next generation of DOS, OS/2.

eComStation screenshot

EComStation

eComStation screenshot

eComStation or eCS is an operating system based on OS/2 Warp for the 32-bit x86 architecture.

Microsoft

American multinational technology corporation which produces computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services headquarted at the Microsoft Redmond campus located in Redmond, Washington, United States.

American multinational technology corporation which produces computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services headquarted at the Microsoft Redmond campus located in Redmond, Washington, United States.

An Altair 8800 computer (left) with the popular Model 33 ASR Teletype as terminal, paper tape reader, and paper tape punch.
Paul Allen and Bill Gates on October 19, 1981, after signing a pivotal contract with IBM
Windows 1.0 was released on November 20, 1985, as the first version of the Microsoft Windows line
In 1996, Microsoft released Windows CE, a version of the operating system meant for personal digital assistants and other tiny computers, shown here on the HP 300LX.
Microsoft released the first installment in the Xbox series of consoles in 2001. The Xbox, graphically powerful compared to its rivals, featured a standard PC's 733 MHz Intel Pentium III processor.
CEO Steve Ballmer at the MIX event in 2008. In an interview about his management style in 2005, he mentioned that his first priority was to get the people he delegates to in order. Ballmer also emphasized the need to continue pursuing new technologies even if initial attempts fail, citing the original attempts with Windows as an example.
Headquarters of the European Commission, which has imposed several fines on Microsoft
Surface Pro 3, part of the Surface series of laplets by Microsoft
The Xbox One console, released in 2013
Satya Nadella succeeded Steve Ballmer as the CEO of Microsoft in February 2014
The Nokia Lumia 1320, the Microsoft Lumia 535 and the Nokia Lumia 530, which all run on one of the now-discontinued Windows Phone operating systems
Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin using a Microsoft HoloLens mixed reality headset in September 2016
Five year history graph of nasdaq: MSFT stock on July 17, 2013
Windows 8 Launch Event in Akihabara, Tokyo on October 25, 2012
The west campus of the Microsoft Redmond campus
Microsoft's Toronto flagship store
Toyota Yaris WRC
1975–1980: First Microsoft logo, in 1975
1980–1982: Second Microsoft logo, in 1980
1982–1987: Third Microsoft logo, in 1982
1987–2012: Microsoft "Pac-Man" logo, designed by Scott Baker and used from 1987 to 2012
2012–present: Fifth Microsoft logo, introduced on August 23, 2012<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://blogs.technet.com/b/microsoft_blog/archive/2012/08/23/microsoft-unveils-a-new-look.aspx |title=Microsoft Unveils a New Look |work=Microsoft |date=August 2012 |access-date=August 23, 2012 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120825012157/http://blogs.technet.com/b/microsoft_blog/archive/2012/08/23/microsoft-unveils-a-new-look.aspx |archive-date=August 25, 2012}}</ref>

Microsoft released Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical extension for MS-DOS, despite having begun jointly developing OS/2 with IBM the previous August.

Diagram of the first internetworked connection

Internet protocol suite

Set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks.

Set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks.

Diagram of the first internetworked connection
An SRI International Packet Radio Van, used for the first three-way internetworked transmission.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
Encapsulation of application data descending through the layers described in RFC 1122

They navigated the corporate politics to get a stream of TCP/IP products for various IBM systems, including MVS, VM, and OS/2.