OS X Mountain Lion

OS X 10.810.8OS X 10.8 Mountain LionMac OS X Mountain LionMountain Lion10.8 Mountain LionMac OS X 10.8Mac OS X v10.8Mac OS X 10.8 Mountain LionOS X 10.8 "Mountain Lion
OS X Mountain Lion (version 10.8) is the ninth major release of OS X (previously Mac OS X from 2001 to 2012, renamed to macOS in 2016), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.wikipedia
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Mac OS X Lion

Mac OS X 10.7Mac OS X 10.7 LionOS X Lion
Named to signify its status as a refinement of the previous Mac OS X version, Lion, Apple's stated aims in developing Mountain Lion were to allow users to more easily manage and synchronise content between multiple Apple devices and to make the operating system more familiar.
In July 2012, Lion was removed from the Mac App Store and retail Apple stores following the release of OS X Mountain Lion.

Game Center

GameCenterApple's Game CenterGame Centre
The operating system gained the new malware-blocking system Gatekeeper and integration with Apple's online Game Center and iCloud services, while the Safari web browser was updated to version 6. The Chess app supports Game Center.
Game Center is available on iPod Touch 2nd generation and later (iOS 4.1 or higher required); iPhone 3GS and later (iOS 4.1 or higher required); all models of the iPad (iOS 4.2 or higher required); Mac computers running OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion or later, Apple TV 4 running tvOS, and Apple Watch running watchOS 3.

Notes (Apple)

NotesNotes app
As on iOS, Notes and Reminders became full applications, separate from Mail and Calendar, while the iChat application was replaced with a version of iOS's Messages.
It is provided on their iOS and macOS operating systems, the latter starting with OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion.

MacOS

Mac OS XOS XMac
Named to signify its status as a refinement of the previous Mac OS X version, Lion, Apple's stated aims in developing Mountain Lion were to allow users to more easily manage and synchronise content between multiple Apple devices and to make the operating system more familiar. OS X Mountain Lion (version 10.8) is the ninth major release of OS X (previously Mac OS X from 2001 to 2012, renamed to macOS in 2016), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.
After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion.

IChat

iChat AVApple iChatchat software
As on iOS, Notes and Reminders became full applications, separate from Mail and Calendar, while the iChat application was replaced with a version of iOS's Messages.
In OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion and later releases, iChat has been replaced by Messages.

Gatekeeper (macOS)

GatekeeperXProtectFile Quarantine
The operating system gained the new malware-blocking system Gatekeeper and integration with Apple's online Game Center and iCloud services, while the Safari web browser was updated to version 6.
A graphical user interface was added in OS X Mountain Lion and later also in version 10.7.5 of Lion.

Notification Center

notificationnotification centre
Mountain Lion also added a version of iOS's Notification Center, which groups updates from different applications in one place.
Initially released with iOS 5 in October 2011, Notification Center was made available on Macs as part of OS X Mountain Lion in July 2012.

Messages (Apple)

MessagesTextApple Messages
As on iOS, Notes and Reminders became full applications, separate from Mail and Calendar, while the iChat application was replaced with a version of iOS's Messages.
The desktop Messages application replaced iChat as the native OS X instant messaging client with the release of OS X Mountain Lion in July 2012.

OS X Mavericks

OS X 10.910.9Mavericks
Mountain Lion was the last paid upgrade for an OS X major release, with OS X Mavericks and later being free.
OS X Mavericks can run on any Mac that can run OS X Mountain Lion; as with Mountain Lion, 2 GB of RAM, 8 GB of available storage, and OS X 10.6.8 (Snow Leopard) or later are required.

Safari (web browser)

SafariApple SafariSafari web browser
The operating system gained the new malware-blocking system Gatekeeper and integration with Apple's online Game Center and iCloud services, while the Safari web browser was updated to version 6. There are many new features for Chinese users, including support for Baidu as an option for Safari search engine, QQ, 163.com and 126.com services for Mail, Contacts and Calendar, Youku, Tudou and Sina Weibo are integrated into share sheets.
The stable release of Safari 6 coincided with the release of OS X Mountain Lion on July 25, 2012, and is integrated into the OS.

App Store (macOS)

Mac App StoreApp StoremacOS App Store
OS X Mountain Lion was released on July 25, 2012 for purchase and download through Apple's Mac App Store, as part of a switch to releasing OS X versions online and every year, rather than every two years or so.
Starting from OS X Mountain Lion, Apple's operating systems can only be downloaded from the Mac App Store.

IMessage

App Store (iMessage)Apple iMessageiMessages
Messages supports Apple's iMessage, a free instant messaging service previously only available on devices running iOS 5.
iMessage is an instant messaging service developed by Apple Inc. Launched in 2011, it is supported by the Messages application in iOS 5 and later and OS X Mountain Lion and later.

MacBook Pro

MacBook Pro with Retina DisplayApple MacBook ProTouch Bar
The third generation MacBook Pro, revised MacBook Air, iPad Smart Case, and third-generation AirPort Express were announced at the keynote as well.
On June 11, 2012, Apple showcased its upgraded Mac notebooks, OS X Mountain Lion, and iOS 6 at the Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) in San Francisco.

Apple Mail

MailMail (Apple)Mail (OS X)
As on iOS, Notes and Reminders became full applications, separate from Mail and Calendar, while the iChat application was replaced with a version of iOS's Messages. There are many new features for Chinese users, including support for Baidu as an option for Safari search engine, QQ, 163.com and 126.com services for Mail, Contacts and Calendar, Youku, Tudou and Sina Weibo are integrated into share sheets.
In OS X Mountain Lion (version 10.8), Mail received VIP tagging, Safari-style inline search for words within an email message, the ability to sync with iCloud and new sharing features.

System Preferences

control panelcontrol panelsCDEVs
Many settings of Notification Center can be customized under the "Notifications" pane in System Preferences.
OS X Mountain Lion (10.8) includes the following preference panes:

Apple Worldwide Developers Conference

WWDCWorldwide Developers ConferenceWorld Wide Developers Conference
During the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference keynote on June 11, 2012, Apple announced a "near final" release version of Mountain Lion for developers, with the public version arriving in July 2012 at a price tag of US$19.99 (€15.99 in Europe, £13.99 in the UK, $20.99 in Australia and ¥128 in Mainland China).
Apple also showcased OS X Mountain Lion and iOS 6.

Calendar (Apple)

iCalCalendarApple iCal
As on iOS, Notes and Reminders became full applications, separate from Mail and Calendar, while the iChat application was replaced with a version of iOS's Messages. There are many new features for Chinese users, including support for Baidu as an option for Safari search engine, QQ, 163.com and 126.com services for Mail, Contacts and Calendar, Youku, Tudou and Sina Weibo are integrated into share sheets.
The macOS version was known as iCal before the release of OS X Mountain Lion in July 2012.

Address Book (application)

Address BookContactsOS X Address Book
There are many new features for Chinese users, including support for Baidu as an option for Safari search engine, QQ, 163.com and 126.com services for Mail, Contacts and Calendar, Youku, Tudou and Sina Weibo are integrated into share sheets.
The Contacts app replaced Address Book in Mac OS X 10.8 ("Mountain Lion").

Unified Extensible Firmware Interface

UEFIEFIExtensible Firmware Interface
The technical basis for these requirements is incompatibility with 32-bit EFI and 32-bit kernel extensions (most importantly, drivers for GPUs shipped in some older Macs).

MacBook Air

Apple MacBook AirAirsApple MacBook Air SuperDrive
The third generation MacBook Pro, revised MacBook Air, iPad Smart Case, and third-generation AirPort Express were announced at the keynote as well.

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AirPort Express

AirPort Express 802.11n (5th Generation)AirPort Express Base Station
The third generation MacBook Pro, revised MacBook Air, iPad Smart Case, and third-generation AirPort Express were announced at the keynote as well.
OS X Mountain Lion introduced a feature to output system-wide audio directly to AirPort Express.

Mac Mini

Mac Mini ServerMac Mini (Mid 2010)Mac Mini G4

List of macOS components

Classic EnvironmentAutomatorClassic
The Chess app supports Game Center.
Contacts, called Address Book before OS X Mountain Lion, is a computerized address book included with Apple Inc.'s macOS.

Mac Pro

MacPro2019 Mac ProApple Mac Pro
Jesus Diaz of Gizmodo felt that Apple was running out of ideas and that Microsoft's Windows 8 may out-innovate OS X. Apple also received criticism for failing to provide an official upgrade pathway for owners of 2006 Mac Pro workstation computers.