Obergefell v. Hodges

ObergefellObergefell vs. HodgesJune Supreme Court rulingObergefell v Hodgessame-sex marriagedecisionJames ObergefellObergefell v. Himesruling#LoveWins
Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___ (2015), is a landmark civil rights case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.wikipedia
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Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Fourteenth Amendment14th AmendmentFourteenth
Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___ (2015), is a landmark civil rights case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The amendment, particularly its first section, is one of the most litigated parts of the Constitution, forming the basis for landmark decisions such as Brown v. Board of Education (1954) regarding racial segregation, Roe v. Wade (1973) regarding abortion, Bush v. Gore (2000) regarding the 2000 presidential election, and Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) regarding same-sex marriage.

List of landmark court decisions in the United States

landmarklandmark decisionlandmark case
Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___ (2015), is a landmark civil rights case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Same-sex marriage in the Sixth Circuit

Sixth Circuit Court of AppealsSixth CircuitU.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit
After all district courts ruled for the plaintiffs, the rulings were appealed to the Sixth Circuit.
On April 28, 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States heard oral arguments for Obergefell v. Hodges (Ohio), which was consolidated with three other same-sex marriage cases from the other states in the Sixth Circuit: Tanco v. Haslam (Tennessee), DeBoer v. Snyder (Michigan), Bourke v. Beshear (Kentucky).

Same-sex marriage in the United States

same-sex marriageUnited Statesgay marriage
This established same-sex marriage throughout the United States and its territories.
In June 2015, the Supreme Court ruled in the landmark civil rights case of Obergefell v. Hodges that the fundamental right of same-sex couples to marry on the same terms and conditions as opposite-sex couples, with all the accompanying rights and responsibilities, is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Supreme Court of the United States

United States Supreme CourtU.S. Supreme CourtSupreme Court
Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___ (2015), is a landmark civil rights case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Some of its major rulings have concerned federal preemption (Wyeth v. Levine), civil procedure (Twombly-Iqbal), abortion (Gonzales v. Carhart), climate change (Massachusetts v. EPA), same-sex marriage (United States v. Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges) and the Bill of Rights, notably in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (First Amendment), Heller-McDonald (Second Amendment) and Baze v. Rees (Eighth Amendment).

Baker v. Nelson

Benson v. AlversonBenson, et al. v. AlversonRichard John Baker v. Gerald R. Nelson
In November 2014, following a lengthy series of appeals court rulings that year from the Fourth, Seventh, Ninth, and Tenth Circuits that state-level bans on same-sex marriage were unconstitutional, the Sixth Circuit ruled that it was bound by Baker v. Nelson and found such bans to be constitutional.
Subsequently, on June 26, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court explicitly overruled Baker in Obergefell v. Hodges, making same-sex marriage legal nationwide.

Same-sex marriage

gay marriagemarriage equalitysame sex marriage
Decided on June 26, 2015, Obergefell overturned Baker and requires all states to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples and to recognize same-sex marriages validly performed in other jurisdictions.
In 2015, John Lewis, a leader of the civil rights movement and a chairman of the SNCC, welcomed the outcome of the landmark civil rights case of Obergefell v. Hodges in which the Supreme Court of the United States struck down all state bans on same-sex marriage, stating that "races don't fall in love, genders don't fall in love—people fall in love".

DeBoer v. Snyder

Michigan
Consequently, on January 23, 2012, DeBoer and Rowse filed a lawsuit in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan (Southern Division, Detroit), DeBoer v. Snyder, alleging Michigan's adoption law was unconstitutional.
The decision was appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which, on January 16, 2015, consolidated this case with three others and agreed to review the case.

Anthony Kennedy

Justice KennedyKennedyAnthony M. Kennedy
In a majority opinion authored by Justice Anthony Kennedy, the Court examined the nature of fundamental rights guaranteed to all by the Constitution, the harm done to individuals by delaying the implementation of such rights while the democratic process plays out, and the evolving understanding of discrimination and inequality that has developed greatly since Baker.
Kennedy authored the majority opinion in several important cases, including Boumediene v. Bush, Citizens United v. FEC, and four gay rights cases (Romer v. Evans, Lawrence v. Texas, United States v. Windsor, and Obergefell v. Hodges).

Jim Obergefell

James "Jim" Obergefell
In June 2013, following the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in United States v. Windsor, James "Jim" Obergefell and John Arthur decided to get married to obtain legal recognition of their relationship.
Jim Obergefell (born 1966 in Sandusky, Ohio) is a civil rights activist known as the plaintiff in the Supreme Court case Obergefell v. Hodges, which legalized same-sex marriage in the United States.

Same-sex marriage in Guam

Guamallow same-sex marriageSame-sex marriage since 2015
Prior to Obergefell, same-sex marriage had already been established by law, court ruling, or voter initiative in thirty-six states, the District of Columbia, and Guam.
Following the District Court of Guam's June 2015 ruling permanently enjoining Guam officials from enforcing the 1994 law banning same-sex marriage and the U.S Supreme Court's ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges, Guam legislators on August 12, 2015 passed the Guam Marriage Equality Act of 2015, which created legal equality in civil marriage.

United States v. Windsor

Windsor v. United StatesWindsor5-4 vote
In June 2013, following the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in United States v. Windsor, James "Jim" Obergefell and John Arthur decided to get married to obtain legal recognition of their relationship. During a hearing on March 7, 2013, Judge Friedman decided he would delay the case until the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in United States v. Windsor and Hollingsworth v. Perry, hoping for guidance. The Obergefell v. Hodges decision came on the second anniversary of the United States v. Windsor ruling that struck down Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which denied federal recognition to same-sex marriages, as being unconstitutional.
Two years later, in the case of Obergefell v. Hodges, the Court struck down all state bans on same-sex marriage, ruling that marriage is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause.

Bourke v. Beshear

Love v. BeshearBourke v. Beshear'' and ''Love v. Beshear
On July 26, 2013, Bourke and DeLeon, and their two children through them, filed a lawsuit, Bourke v. Beshear, in the United States District Court for the Western District of Kentucky (Louisville Division), challenging Kentucky's bans on same-sex marriage and the recognition of same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions.
On January 16, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court consolidated these cases with three others and agreed to review the case under the name Obergefell v. Hodges.

Same-sex relationship

same-sex couplessame-sex couplesame-sex relationships
Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___ (2015), is a landmark civil rights case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Though more than 30 states have constitutional restrictions on marriage, all states must recognize same-sex marriages following the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges.

Same-sex marriage in the Tenth Circuit

Tenth Circuit Court of AppealsTenthTenth Circuit
In November 2014, following a lengthy series of appeals court rulings that year from the Fourth, Seventh, Ninth, and Tenth Circuits that state-level bans on same-sex marriage were unconstitutional, the Sixth Circuit ruled that it was bound by Baker v. Nelson and found such bans to be constitutional.
The state government refused to recognize same-sex marriages until July 6, 2015 after the Supreme Court of the United States' landmark ruled in Obergefell v. Hodges on June 26, 2015.

Defense of Marriage Act

DOMADefense of Marriage Act (DOMA)Defense of Marriage
The Obergefell v. Hodges decision came on the second anniversary of the United States v. Windsor ruling that struck down Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), which denied federal recognition to same-sex marriages, as being unconstitutional.
The act's provisions were ruled unconstitutional or left effectively unenforceable by Supreme Court decisions in the cases of United States v. Windsor (2013) and Obergefell v. Hodges (2015).

Morgan, Lewis & Bockius

Morgan, Lewis & Bockius LLPMorgan LewisMorgan Lewis & Bockius
The case had 148 amici curiae briefs submitted, more than any other U.S. Supreme Court case, including a historic amicus brief, written by Morgan Lewis partner Susan Baker Manning, on behalf of 379 business entities, which stated a business case for legalizing same-sex marriage across the country.
In 2015, Morgan Lewis filed a historic amicus brief for the definitive Supreme Court case of Obergefell v. Hodges, on behalf of 379 companies, including Apple, Google, Microsoft, Amazon, Walmart, JPMorgan Chase, and the New England Patriots, which argued "a business case for legalizing same-sex marriage across the country."

Loving v. Virginia

Mildred LovingRichard LovingLoving v Virginia
As the Supreme Court has found in cases such as Loving v. Virginia, Zablocki v. Redhail, and Turner v. Safley, this extension includes a fundamental right to marry.
Beginning in 2013, it was cited as precedent in U.S. federal court decisions holding restrictions on same-sex marriage in the United States unconstitutional, including in the 2015 Supreme Court decision Obergefell v. Hodges.

Equal Protection Clause

equal protectionequal protection of the lawsEqual Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment
Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___ (2015), is a landmark civil rights case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
In 2015, the Supreme Court held in a 5–4 decision that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution and required all states to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples and to recognize same-sex marriages validly performed in other jurisdictions.

Lawrence v. Texas

Lawrence2003539 U.S. 558
It also came on the twelfth anniversary of Lawrence v. Texas, which struck down sodomy laws in 13 states.
Its outcome was celebrated by gay rights advocates, and set the stage for further reconsiderations of standing law, including the landmark case of Obergefell v. Hodges which recognized same-sex marriage as a fundamental right under the United States Constitution.

Mary Bonauto

Bonauto, MaryMary L. Bonauto
The plaintiffs were represented by civil rights lawyer Mary Bonauto and Washington, D.C. lawyer Douglas Hallward-Driemeier.
On April 28, 2015 Bonauto was one of three attorneys who argued before the U.S. Supreme Court in Obergefell v. Hodges arguing state bans on same-sex marriage to be unconstitutional.

Barack Obama

ObamaPresident ObamaPresident Barack Obama
President Barack Obama praised the decision and called it a "victory for America".
His administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional (United States v. Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges); same-sex marriage was fully legalized in 2015 after the Court ruled that a same-sex marriage ban was unconstitutional in Obergefell.

John Kasich

John R. KasichKasichGovernor John Kasich
The lead defendant was Ohio Governor John Kasich.
In June 2015, following the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Obergefell v. Hodges, which held that there is a fundamental right to same-sex marriage under the Fourteenth Amendment, Kasich said that he was "obviously disappointed" and that he believes in "traditional marriage," but that the ruling was "the law of the land and we'll abide by it" and that it was "time to move on" to other issues.

Tanco v. Haslam

On October 21, 2013, wishing to have their out-of-state marriages recognized in Tennessee, the four couples filed a lawsuit, Tanco v. Haslam, in the United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee (Nashville Division).
On June 26, 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled on the case, which had been consolidated with three other cases from Michigan, Ohio, and Kentucky, in Obergefell v. Hodges.

Same-sex marriage by Circuit Court

CircuitCircuit CourtCircuits
In November 2014, following a lengthy series of appeals court rulings that year from the Fourth, Seventh, Ninth, and Tenth Circuits that state-level bans on same-sex marriage were unconstitutional, the Sixth Circuit ruled that it was bound by Baker v. Nelson and found such bans to be constitutional.
They ruled that same-sex marriage bans violate the constitution in the landmark ruling Obergefell v. Hodges which was the consolidated case that covered each state in the Sixth Circuit.