Oberst

Oberst Werner Mummert of the Germany Army, 1942.
Army
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<center>Oberst i.G.
<center>Oberst
<center>Oberst a.D.
<center>Oberst
<center>Oberst
Army
Air Force
Army
Amphibious Corps
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Senior field officer rank in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries, equivalent to colonel.

- Oberst
Oberst Werner Mummert of the Germany Army, 1942.

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The Gorkha regiment marching contingent of the Indian Army on parade

Field officer

Army, Marine, or Air Force commissioned officer senior in rank to a company officer but junior to a general officer.

Army, Marine, or Air Force commissioned officer senior in rank to a company officer but junior to a general officer.

The Gorkha regiment marching contingent of the Indian Army on parade

In the German Bundeswehr, officers from Major, Oberstleutnant to Oberst in the Heer (Army) and Luftwaffe (Air Force), or from Korvettenkapitän, Fregattenkapitän to Kapitän zur See in the Deutsche Marine (German Navy) are traditionally known as Stabsoffiziere (Staff officers, in the meaning of field officers) OF-3, OF-4 and OF-5.

<center>Albania

Colonel

Senior military officer rank used in many countries.

Senior military officer rank used in many countries.

<center>Albania
<center>Australia</center>
<center>Bangladesh</center>
<center>Belarus</center>
<center>Belgium</center>
<center>Bolivia
<center>Bosnia and Herzegovina
<center>Iran(sarhang)</center>
<center>Brazil
<center>Bulgaria
<center>Canada
<center>Chile
<center>China
<center>Colombia
<center>Czech Republic (Plukovník)</center>
<center>Denmark
<center>Dominican Republic</center>
<center>Finland
<center>France</center>
<center>Georgia (პოლკოვნიკი, polkovnik)</center>
<center>Germany (oberst)</center>
<center>Greece
<center>Hungary
<center>India</center>
<center>Indonesia</center>
<center>Ireland</center>
<center>Israel</center>
<center>Italy
<center>Monaco
<center>Mongolia (Хурандаа)</center>
<center>Morocco (عقيد)</center>
<center>Netherlands
<center>North Macedonia
<center>Norway
<center>Pakistan</center>
<center>Philippines<br/ >(Lakan/Coronel)</center>
<center>Poland
<center>Portugal
<center>Romania</center>
<center>Russia
<center>Serbia
<center>South Korea</center>
<center>Spain
<center>South Africa</center>
<center>Syria (عقيد)''</center>
<center>Sri Lanka</center>
<center>Sweden
<center>Taiwan
<center>Thailand</center>
<center>Turkey</center>
<center>Ukraine (polkovnik/Полковник)</center>
<center>United Kingdom</center>
<center>United States</center>
<center>Vietnam
<center>Belgium</center>
<center>Brazil (coronel)</center>
<center>Canada</center>
<center>Chile (coronel)</center>
<center>Denmark (oberst)</center>
<center>France</center>
<center>Georgia (პოლკოვნიკი, polkovnik)</center>
<center>Germany (oberst)</center>
<center>Indonesia (kolonel)</center>
<center>Italy (colonnello)</center>
<center>South Korea</center>
<center>Netherlands (kolonel)</center>
<center>Philippines
<center>Poland (pułkownik)</center>
<center>Portugal (coronel)</center>
<center>Russia (polkovnik)</center>
<center>Serbia (pukovnik)</center>
<center>Spain (coronel)</center>
<center>Sweden (Överste)</center>
<center>Taiwan</center>
<center>United States (also space force)</center>
<center>Vietnam (thượng tá)</center>
<center>Venezuela</center>
<center>Indonesia</center>
<center>Israel</center>
<center>Philippines</center>
<center>South Korea</center>
<center>Taiwan</center>
<center>United Kingdom</center>
<center>United States</center>
Brazil (coronel)
Chile (coronel)
French Nationale Gendarmerie (colonel)
Russian MVD Police (polkovnik)

Colonel (Germanic languages)

Standartenführer

Nazi Party (NSDAP) paramilitary rank that was used in several NSDAP organizations, such as the SA, SS, NSKK and the NSFK.

Nazi Party (NSDAP) paramilitary rank that was used in several NSDAP organizations, such as the SA, SS, NSKK and the NSFK.

Hermann Fegelein as an SS-Standartenführer

In the Waffen-SS, the rank was considered the equivalent of an Oberst, a full colonel.

D.M. Andreas Mollat Roth, here as k. k. Oberstabsarzt, about 1863

Oberstarzt

Military rank in German speaking armed forces.

Military rank in German speaking armed forces.

D.M. Andreas Mollat Roth, here as k. k. Oberstabsarzt, about 1863
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Oberstarzt, Oberstapotheker, and Oberstveterinär are comparable in NATO to the OF-5 rank Oberst; Flottenarzt, and Flottenapotheker are equivalent to Kapitän zur See, OF-5 as well.

Field Marshal von Witzleben in 1940 or '41

Erwin von Witzleben

German field marshal in the Wehrmacht during the Second World War.

German field marshal in the Wehrmacht during the Second World War.

Field Marshal von Witzleben in 1940 or '41
Witzleben (r.) with Reichswehr Generaloberst Wilhelm Heye, c. 1930
Hitler, Witzleben and SS-Obergruppenführer Sepp Dietrich at the 1936 Summer Olympics
Field Marshals Rundstedt and Witzleben in France, March 1941
Witzleben as the commander of OB West with Generaloberst Curt Haase, commander of the 15th Army, May 1941
Witzleben on trial at the Volksgerichtshof

After being promoted to full Oberst (colonel) in 1931, he took over as commanding officer of the (Prussian) Infantry Regiment No. 8 in Frankfurt on the Oder.

Von Choltitz in 1940 as Oberstleutnant

Dietrich von Choltitz

German general.

German general.

Von Choltitz in 1940 as Oberstleutnant
Ruins of the castle in Łąka Prudnicka
Von Choltitz in 1940
Von Choltitz in 1942
Dietrich von Choltitz signing the Nazi surrender after the liberation of Paris
Surrender of the German garrison in Paris, signed by General von Choltitz on August 25, received by General Leclerc and countersigned by Colonel Rol-Tanguy
Dietrich von Choltitz with Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque and Jacques Soustelle in the M3 Scout Car
Dietrich von Choltitz (standing far left) at Trent Park in London

In September of the same year, he was given command of the regiment, and the following spring was made Oberst (colonel).

V-1 flying bomb

Early cruise missile.

Early cruise missile.

V-1 cutaway
Rear view of V-1 in IWM Duxford, showing launch ramp section
A V-1 on display in the Musée de l'Armée, Paris
A reconstructed starting ramp for V-1 flying bombs, Historical Technical Museum, Peenemünde (2009)
V1 on Walter catapult ramp at Éperlecques
V1 launch piston for Walter catapult
V-1 (Fieseler Fi 103) in flight
On 13 June 1944, the first V-1 struck London next to the railway bridge on Grove Road, Mile End, which now carries this English Heritage blue plaque. Eight civilians were killed in the blast.
A German crew rolls out a V-1.
A German Luftwaffe Heinkel He 111 H-22. This version could carry FZG 76 (V1) flying bombs, but only a few aircraft were produced in 1944. Some were used by bomb wing KG 3.
Fieseler F103R Reichenberg piloted V1
Model of an Arado Ar 234 carrying a V-1 at the Technikmuseum Speyer
A battery of static QF 3.7-inch guns on railway-sleeper platforms at Hastings on the south coast of England, July 1944
A Spitfire using its wingtip to "topple" a V-1 flying bomb
Aftermath of a V-1 bombing, London, 1944
Max Wachtel
A V-1 and launching ramp section on display at the Imperial War Museum Duxford (2009)
A KGW-1 being fired from USS Cusk (SS-348) in 1951
War Memorial in Greencastle, Indiana
One of the two V1 Flying Bombs on display at the Stampe & Vertongen Museum, Antwerp Airport, Belgium
V-1 launch ramp recreated at the Imperial War Museum, Duxford
V-1 flying bomb on display at the Imperial War Museum London
V-1 on display at the Air Zoo
V-1 launch ramp recreated at the Imperial War Museum, Duxford

In the spring of 1944, Oberst Schmalschläger had developed a more simplified launching site, called Einsatz Stellungen.

Polish soldiers inside the ruined Monte Cassino Monastery

Battle of Monte Cassino

Costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II.

Costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II.

Polish soldiers inside the ruined Monte Cassino Monastery
First Battle: plan of attack
German paratroopers from the 3rd FJR "Green Devils" taking part in the battles for Monte Cassino, March 1944
British Royal Engineers of the 46th Infantry Division cross the Garigliano river, 19 January 1944
A German tank crew attempts to restore their Panzer IV's mobility after battle damage inflicted during the fighting
US soldiers with a 57mm M-1 anti-tank gun fighting near Monte Cassino during the initial assault
First Battle: Northern Sector 24 January – 11 February 1944
Second battle: plan of attack
A B-17 Flying Fortress over Monte Cassino, 15 February 1944
Monte Cassino in ruins
German paratroopers at Monte Cassino
Third Battle: Plan of Attack
Bombing of 15 March
German prisoners captured by New Zealand troops are held beside a Sherman tank. After repeated unsuccessful assaults, the Allied offensive was again called off on 22 March.
Signallers of the 6th Battalion, Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment using a radio in a dugout on Monastery Hill
Operation Diadem plan of attack
Moroccan Goumier
British soldier with a Bren gun in the ruins of Monte Cassino
A knocked out Sherman tank by a Bailey bridge in the foreground with Monastery Ridge and Castle Hill in the background shortly after capture. (This photograph has been reversed and so depicts a mirror image of the actual scene.)
Polish Monte Cassino Commemorative Cross
Unloading of Monte Cassino property in the Piazza Venezia in Rome
Polish soldiers carry ammunition to the front lines just before the capture of the abbey
A Polish bugler plays the Hejnał mariacki, announcing the victory
Ruins of the town of Cassino after the battle
Monte Cassino: the Polish War Cemetery
Commonwealth cemetery
German cemetery

Polish II Corps lost 281 officers and 3,503 other ranks in assaults on Oberst Ludwig Heilmann's 4th Parachute Regiment, until the attacks were called off.

Socialist Reich Party

West German political party founded in the aftermath of World War II in 1949 as an openly neo-Nazi-oriented split-off from the national conservative German Right Party (DKP-DRP).

West German political party founded in the aftermath of World War II in 1949 as an openly neo-Nazi-oriented split-off from the national conservative German Right Party (DKP-DRP).

SRP leaders Dorls (l.), Remer, and Wolf von Westarp in August 1952

Its foundation was backed by former Luftwaffe Oberst Hans-Ulrich Rudel.

A farmhouse in Hürtgen served as shelter for HQ Company, 121st Infantry Regiment, 8th Infantry Division, XIX Corps, 9th US Army. They nicknamed it the "Hürtgen Hotel".

Battle of Hürtgen Forest

Series of fierce battles fought from 19 September to 16 December 1944, between American and German forces on the Western Front during World War II, in the Hürtgen Forest, a 140 km2 area about 5 km east of the Belgian–German border.

Series of fierce battles fought from 19 September to 16 December 1944, between American and German forces on the Western Front during World War II, in the Hürtgen Forest, a 140 km2 area about 5 km east of the Belgian–German border.

A farmhouse in Hürtgen served as shelter for HQ Company, 121st Infantry Regiment, 8th Infantry Division, XIX Corps, 9th US Army. They nicknamed it the "Hürtgen Hotel".
Map showing the area of the battle
View to the west over the Kall Valley.
A track from a U.S. armored vehicle that was buried upside down by U.S. troops on an upward slope of a pathway to assist in traction for other U.S. vehicles in the Kall Valley.
A German infantry gun firing in defense against a U.S. attack on 22 November 1944 in the Hürtgen forest
Troops of Co. I, 3rd Battalion, 8th Regiment, 4th Infantry Division, in the Hurtgen forest on 18 November 1944.
Commemorative plaque at a house in Merode remembering the soldiers of the 1st Infantry Division lost in action at the Merode area 1944.
American infantrymen move through Hurtgen on their way to the front lines. Company I, 181st Regiment, 8th Infantry Division.
A U.S. half-track of the 16th Infantry Regiment/1st U.S. Division in the Hürtgen Forest, 15 February 1945

Although the 1st Infantry Division called for the surrender of the German garrison in the city, German commander Oberst Gerhard Wilck refused to capitulate until 21 October.