Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweightmorbid obesityfatweight controlweight gaincorpulentobesity, morbidweight problems
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health.wikipedia
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Obesity-associated morbidity

morbidly obesemorbid obesitydiabesity
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression.
Obesity is an important risk factor for many chronic physical and mental illnesses.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression. Health consequences fall into two broad categories: those attributable to the effects of increased fat mass (such as osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, social stigmatization) and those due to the increased number of fat cells (diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease).
Another 10% are due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity or excessive drinking of alcohol.

Overweight

excess body weightexcess weightheavy-set
People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2; the range 25 kg/m2 is defined as overweight.
, excess weight reached epidemic proportions globally, with more than 1 billion adults being either overweight or obese.

Bariatric surgery

weight loss surgeryBariatricbody contouring
If diet, exercise, and medication are not effective, a gastric balloon or surgery may be performed to reduce stomach volume or length of the intestines, leading to feeling full earlier or a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.
Bariatric surgery (or weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have obesity.

Childhood obesity

child obesityobesitychild
Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing rates in adults and children.
As methods to determine body fat directly are difficult, the diagnosis of obesity is often based on BMI.

Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiac diseaseheart condition
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression. Health consequences fall into two broad categories: those attributable to the effects of increased fat mass (such as osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, social stigmatization) and those due to the increased number of fat cells (diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease).
This may be caused by high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol consumption, among others.

Anti-obesity medication

diet pilldiet pillsanti-obesity drug
Medications can be used, along with a suitable diet, to reduce appetite or decrease fat absorption.
The main treatment modalities for overweight and obese individuals remain dieting and physical exercise.

Adipose tissue

adiposebody fatfat
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
In an obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus.

Obstructive sleep apnea

obstructive sleep apnea syndromeobstructiveobstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression. Health consequences fall into two broad categories: those attributable to the effects of increased fat mass (such as osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, social stigmatization) and those due to the increased number of fat cells (diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease).
Some adults with OSA are obese.

Hypercholesterolemia

high cholesterolhigh blood cholesterolhypercholesterolaemia
These comorbidities are most commonly shown in metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical disorders which includes: diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels.
Elevated levels of non-HDL cholesterol and LDL in the blood may be a consequence of diet, obesity, inherited (genetic) diseases (such as LDL receptor mutations in familial hypercholesterolemia), or the presence of other diseases such as type 2 diabetes and an underactive thyroid.

Obesity in the United States

obesityobesity epidemicUnited States
In the United States, obesity is estimated to cause 111,909 to 365,000 deaths per year, while 1 million (7.7%) of deaths in Europe are attributed to excess weight.
While many industrialized countries have experienced similar increases, obesity rates in the United States are the highest in the world.

Body mass index

BMIbody mass index (BMI)body-mass index
People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2; the range 25 kg/m2 is defined as overweight. It is defined by body mass index (BMI) and further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist–hip ratio and total cardiovascular risk factors.
For such individuals, the value recommendations are as follows: a BMI from 18.5 up to 25 kg/m 2 may indicate optimal weight, a BMI lower than 18.5 suggests the person is underweight, a number from 25 up to 30 may indicate the person is overweight, and a number from 30 upwards suggests the person is obese.

Public health

healthcommunity medicinepublic health specialist
Authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century.
The risk of type 2 diabetes is closely linked with the growing problem of obesity.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

non-alcoholic steatohepatitisnonalcoholic fatty liver diseasenonalcoholic steatohepatitis
Health consequences fall into two broad categories: those attributable to the effects of increased fat mass (such as osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, social stigmatization) and those due to the increased number of fat cells (diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease).
Risk factors include diabetes, obesity, a diet high in fructose and older age.

Metabolic syndrome

syndrome XCardio metabolic riskinsulin resistance
These comorbidities are most commonly shown in metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical disorders which includes: diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels.
Associated conditions include hyperuricemia; fatty liver (especially in concurrent obesity) progressing to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; polycystic ovarian syndrome in women and erectile dysfunction in men; and acanthosis nigricans.

Diabetes mellitus type 2

type 2 diabetestype II diabetestype 2 diabetes mellitus
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression. These comorbidities are most commonly shown in metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical disorders which includes: diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels.
Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.

Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol intake, among others.

Osteoarthritis

arthrosisdegenerative joint diseaseosteoarthritic
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression. Health consequences fall into two broad categories: those attributable to the effects of increased fat mass (such as osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, social stigmatization) and those due to the increased number of fat cells (diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease).
Obesity

Deep vein thrombosis

deep venous thrombosisdeep-vein thrombosisdeep vein thromboses
Risk factors include recent surgery, cancer, trauma, lack of movement, obesity, smoking, hormonal birth control, pregnancy and the period following birth, antiphospholipid syndrome, and certain genetic conditions.

Waist–hip ratio

waist-hip ratiowaist-to-hip ratiowaist to hip ratio
It is defined by body mass index (BMI) and further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist–hip ratio and total cardiovascular risk factors.
WHR is used as a measurement of obesity, which in turn is a possible indicator of other more serious health conditions.

Insulin resistance

insulin sensitivityresistantinsulin resistant
Increases in body fat alter the body's response to insulin, potentially leading to insulin resistance.
A habitually high intake of carbohydrates, and particularly fructose, e.g. with sweetened beverages, contributes to insulin resistance and has been linked to weight gain and obesity.

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, depression, and excessive alcohol.

Preventable causes of death

preventable deathspreventable cause of deathpreventable death
Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing rates in adults and children.

Cellulitis

pelvic cellulitisbacterial skin infectioncellulitus
Other risk factors include obesity, leg swelling, and old age.

Pulmonary embolism

pulmonary emboluspulmonary embolipulmonary thrombosis
The risk of blood clots is increased by cancer, prolonged bed rest, smoking, stroke, certain genetic conditions, estrogen-based medication, pregnancy, obesity, and after some types of surgery.