A report on Obesity

Silhouettes and waist circumferences representing optimal, overweight, and obese
A "super obese" male with a BMI of 53 kg/m2: weight 182 kg, height 185 cm. He presents with stretch marks and enlarged breasts.
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Average per capita energy consumption of the world from 1961 to 2002
A 1680 painting by Juan Carreno de Miranda of a girl presumed to have Prader–Willi syndrome
The disease scroll (Yamai no soshi, late 12th century) depicts a woman moneylender with obesity, considered a disease of the rich.
Obesity in developed countries is correlated with economic inequality.
A comparison of a mouse unable to produce leptin thus resulting in obesity (left) and a normal mouse (right)
During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance obesity was often seen as a sign of wealth, and was relatively common among the elite: The Tuscan General Alessandro del Borro, attributed to Charles Mellin, 1645
Venus of Willendorf created 24,000–22,000 BC
Services accommodate obese people with specialized equipment such as much wider chairs.
United States President William Howard Taft was often ridiculed for being overweight.
Share of adults that are obese (2016)

Condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to such an extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

- Obesity
Silhouettes and waist circumferences representing optimal, overweight, and obese

86 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A blue circle is the universal symbol of diabetes

Type 2 diabetes

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Form of diabetes that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.

Form of diabetes that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.

A blue circle is the universal symbol of diabetes
Overview of the most significant symptoms of diabetes
Metformin 500 mg tablets
Regional rates of diabetes using data from 195 countries in 2014

Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.

Biliopancreatic diversion.

Bariatric surgery

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Biliopancreatic diversion.
Diagram of a biliopancreatic diversion.
Diagram of a vertical banded gastroplasty.
Diagram of an adjustable gastric banding.
Sleeve Gastrectomy.
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
Diagram of a sleeve gastrectomy with duodenal switch.

Bariatric surgery (or weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who are obese.

A man with marked central obesity, a hallmark of metabolic syndrome. His weight is 182 kg (400 lbs), height 185 cm (6 ft 1 in), and body mass index (BMI) 53 (normal 18.5 to 25).

Metabolic syndrome

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Clustering of at least three of the following five medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides, and low serum high-density lipoprotein .

Clustering of at least three of the following five medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides, and low serum high-density lipoprotein .

A man with marked central obesity, a hallmark of metabolic syndrome. His weight is 182 kg (400 lbs), height 185 cm (6 ft 1 in), and body mass index (BMI) 53 (normal 18.5 to 25).

Associated conditions include hyperuricemia; fatty liver (especially in concurrent obesity) progressing to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; polycystic ovarian syndrome in women and erectile dysfunction in men; and acanthosis nigricans.

Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes

Diabetes

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Group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time.

Group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level over a prolonged period of time.

Universal blue circle symbol for diabetes
Overview of the most significant symptoms of diabetes
Retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy are potential complications of diabetes
Autoimmune attack in type 1 diabetes.
Reduced insulin secretion and absorption leads to high glucose content in the blood.
The fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day with three meals. One of the effects of a sugar-rich vs a starch-rich meal is highlighted.
Mechanism of insulin release in normal pancreatic beta cells. Insulin production is more or less constant within the beta cells. Its release is triggered by food, chiefly food containing absorbable glucose.
Rates of diabetes worldwide in 2014. The worldwide prevalence was 9.2%.
Mortality rate of diabetes worldwide in 2012 per million inhabitants

Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 diabetes.

Micrograph of a heart with fibrosis (yellow) and amyloidosis (brown). Movat's stain.

Cardiovascular disease

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Class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

Class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

Micrograph of a heart with fibrosis (yellow) and amyloidosis (brown). Movat's stain.
Calcified heart of an older woman with cardiomegaly
Density-Dependent Colour Scanning Electron Micrograph SEM (DDC-SEM) of cardiovascular calcification, showing in orange calcium phosphate spherical particles (denser material) and, in green, the extracellular matrix (less dense material)
Cardiovascular diseases deaths per million persons in 2012
Disability-adjusted life year for inflammatory heart diseases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 
No data
Less than 70
70–140
140–210
210–280
280–350
350–420
420–490
490–560
560–630
630–700
700–770
More than 770
Disability-adjusted life year for cardiovascular diseases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 
no data
<900
900–1650
1650–2300
2300–3000
3000–3700
3700–4400
4400–5100
5100–5800
5800–6500
6500–7200
7200–7900
>7900

This may be caused by high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, excessive alcohol consumption, and poor sleep, among other things.

Insulin resistance

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Pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.

Pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.

Risk factors for insulin resistance include obesity, sedentary lifestyle, family history of diabetes, various health conditions, and certain medications.

Automated arm blood pressure meter showing arterial hypertension (shown by a systolic blood pressure 158 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 99 mmHg and heart rate of 80 beats per minute)

Hypertension

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Long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

Long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

Automated arm blood pressure meter showing arterial hypertension (shown by a systolic blood pressure 158 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 99 mmHg and heart rate of 80 beats per minute)
Determinants of mean arterial pressure
Illustration depicting the effects of high blood pressure
Rates of hypertension in adult men in 2014.
Diagram illustrating the main complications of persistent high blood pressure
Image of veins from Harvey's Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus
Graph showing, prevalence of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension compared between the four studies of NHANES

Other causes of secondary hypertension include obesity, sleep apnea, pregnancy, coarctation of the aorta, excessive eating of liquorice, excessive drinking of alcohol, certain prescription medicines, herbal remedies, and stimulants such as coffee, cocaine and methamphetamine.

Weight loss

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Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, by a mean loss of fluid, body fat (adipose tissue), or lean mass (namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue).

Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, by a mean loss of fluid, body fat (adipose tissue), or lean mass (namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue).

Orlistat (Xenical) the most commonly used medication to treat obesity and sibutramine (Meridia) a withdrawn medication due to cardiovascular side effects

Weight loss can either occur unintentionally because of malnourishment or an underlying disease, or from a conscious effort to improve an actual or perceived overweight or obese state.

The overweight range according to the body mass index (BMI) is the area on the chart where BMI > 25.

Overweight

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Having more body fat than is optimally healthy.

Having more body fat than is optimally healthy.

The overweight range according to the body mass index (BMI) is the area on the chart where BMI > 25.

, excess weight reached epidemic proportions globally, with more than 1 billion adults being either overweight or obese.

Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue.

Adipose tissue

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Loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

Loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue.
Distribution of white adipose in the human body
The obese mouse on the left has large stores of adipose tissue. It is unable to produce the hormone leptin. This causes the mouse to be hungry and eat more, which results in obesity. For comparison, a mouse with a normal amount of adipose tissue is shown on the right.
Abdominal obesity in men ("beer belly")
Micro-anatomy of subcutaneous fat
Brown fat cell
Diagrammatic sectional view of the skin (magnified).
White adipose tissue in paraffin section
Electronic instrument of body fat meter

In an obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus.